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Punica granatum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LythraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: 4-angled or cylindric. Leaf: simple, entire, generally opposite, 4-ranked (alternate, whorled). Inflorescence: flowers terminal or in axils of upper leaves or leaf-like bracts, 1 or in +- dense cymes or along short shoots, sessile or not, subtended by [0]2 bractlets. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, membranous or leathery, persistent in fruit; sepals appearing as hypanthium lobes, 4--9, epicalyx lobes alternate sepals or 0; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4--6 or 0, alternate sepals, crinkled, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 × sepals, included or exserted; ovary generally superior, chambers 2--6[many], style generally slender, stigma head-like. Fruit: dry capsule or leathery berry, dehiscent into 2--4 valves or irregularly. Seed: 3--many.
Genera In Family: +- 28 genera, 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes. Note: "Epicalyx lobes" (lobes on calyx) formerly called "appendages," "hypanthium" in Lythraceae (and Onagraceae) including receptacle, sometimes called "flower cup" or "flower tube". Punicaceae (Punica) included here.
eFlora Treatment Author: Shirley A. Graham
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PunicaView Description 

Habit: Shrub, small tree, glabrous. Stem: branches generally many, from near base, often a thorn at tip. Leaf: simple, +- opposite, entire, deciduous. Inflorescence: flowers 1, terminal, 0--4 subterminal, clustered. Flower: bisexual, radial, hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, leathery; sepals 5--9, epicalyx lobes 0; petals 5--9, crumpled; stamens many, inserted at many levels in hypanthium; ovary inferior [partly superior], chambers generally 5 or more, irregular [or regular]. Fruit: berry, +- spheric, leathery, crowned by calyx, splitting irregularly. Seed: many, outer seed coat fleshy, juicy, inner hard.
Species In Genus: 2 species: Mediterranean, northeastern Africa to Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: from early name malus Punicus, "apple of Carthage")

Punica granatum L.
Stem: < 5 m. Leaf: blade 1--9 cm, >> petiole, oblong- or lance-ovate, shiny adaxially. Flower: 2--3 cm; hypanthium, petals bright orange-red to pale yellow. Fruit: 5--12 cm, red-brown. Seed: red (+- white). Chromosomes: n=8,9.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed ground; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SnJV, s CCo, SnGb, n SCo; Distribution Outside California: native southeastern Europe, Asia, to Himalayas. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Widely cultivated in warm areas for fruit (seeds edible, source of grenadine; juice popular antioxidant), ornamental (dwarf, doubled-flowered forms); often naturalized.
Unabridged Note: Persistent calyx on fruit said to have inspired King Solomon's crown.
eFlora Treatment Author: Shirley A. Graham
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Citation for this treatment: Shirley A. Graham 2016. Punica granatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Punica granatum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Punica granatum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Punica granatum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Punica granatum
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Punica granatum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Punica granatum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Punica granatum:
s SnJV, s CCo, SnGb, n SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.