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Polystichum lonchitis
HOLLY FERN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: DryopteridaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: WOOD FERN FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, suberect, or erect, scales large, generally tan to brown, generally uniformly colored. Leaf: generally tufted, 5--200+ cm, generally +- alike; stipe generally firm, base generally darker, with many vascular strands; blade 1--4-pinnate, often with scales, hair-like scales, hairs (except clear, needle-like hairs generally 0), or short-stalked glands on axes, between veins or not, veins free to netted; rachis, costa generally grooved adaxially. Sporangia: sori round, along veins; indusia peltate or round-reniform; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear.
Genera In Family: +- 40--45 genera, > 1600 species: worldwide, especially tropics, wooded areas. Note: Based on molecular sequence data, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Woodsia removed to Woodsiaceae to preserve a monophyletic Dryopteridaceae.
Unabridged Note: Current data (as reported by Schuettpelz & Pryer and in papers cited therein) suggest that Wooodsiaceae is paraphyletic (with respect to Aspeniaceae, Blechnaceae, and Thelypteridaceae), yet are insufficient to resolve the questions of circumscription (too few taxa, not enough genes sampled). Alternative classifications that would preserve monophyly include recognition of several additional, small families (e.g., Cystopteridaceae, Athyriaceae, and others not in California, each comprising just a few genera) or lumping at least 4 currently recognized families, many of long-standing use and acceptance; a conservative and expedient course is taken for now (Smith et al. 2006), pending further work.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan R. Smith
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PolystichumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SWORD FERN
Habit: Rhizome generally suberect to erect, often stout. Leaf: stipe stout, firm, generally densely scaly, ×-section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade 1--3-[> 3--]pinnate, proximal pinnae reduced or not, thin to leathery, scaly, veins generally free, rarely +- jointed; pinna bases often wider acroscopically; teeth, generally including bristle-like tips, < 4 mm [or teeth 0]. Sporangia: sori round; indusium peltate [0 or reniform], sinus 0.
Species In Genus: +- 175+ species: +- worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: many rows, from rows of sori on type sp.)

Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth
NATIVE
Leaf: generally 10--60 cm; stipe generally 1/6--1/10 blade, base scales 2--4(5) mm wide, lance-ovate; blade linear, 1-pinnate; pinnae generally 1--3(4) cm, proximal +- deltate, +- 1/2 longest. Sporangia: indusium entire or minutely toothed. Chromosomes: 2n=82.
Ecology: Generally shaded, moist or wet, granite or limestone crevices or bluffs; Elevation: 1700--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH (Yolla Bolly Mtns), n SNH; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern Canada, Rocky Mountains, Eurasia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan R. Smith
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Polystichum lonchitis

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Citation for this treatment: Alan R. Smith 2016. Polystichum lonchitis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=39420, accessed on September 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 24, 2016.


Polystichum lonchitis
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© 2012 Dana York
Polystichum lonchitis
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© 2012 Dana York
Polystichum lonchitis
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© 1995 John Game
Polystichum lonchitis
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© 1995 John Game
Polystichum lonchitis
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© 1997 John Game

More photos of Polystichum lonchitis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Polystichum lonchitis:
KR, NCoRH (Yolla Bolly Mtns), n SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.