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Vascular Plants of California
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Pleuropogon refractus
NODDING SEMAPHORE GRASS


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: PleuropogonView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: SEMAPHORE GRASS
Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: generally cauline; sheath margins fused > 1/2; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded, drooping. Inflorescence: raceme-like. Spikelet: bisexual; 1--8 cm; laterally compressed; glumes << lowest floret, translucent, lower 1-veined, upper 1--3-veined; breaking apart above glumes and beneath florets; florets 5--20; lemma 7--9-veined, veins prominent, not converging, extending to tip, awn (0)0.2--22 mm; palea +- = lemma, veins with appendages; anthers 3.
Species In Genus: 5 species: temperate North America, 1 sp. in eastern Asia. Etymology: (Greek: side beard, from awn at palea base in some species)
eFlora Treatment Author: Susan J. Bainbridge
Reference: But 2007 FNANM 24:103--109, Novon 4:16--17
Unabridged Reference: But 1994 Novon 4:16--17
Pleuropogon refractus (A. Gray) Benth. ex Vasey
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb from rhizomes. Stem: erect, 7--15 dm, often rooting at lower nodes. Leaf: ligule 2--9 mm; blade (3)5--14 mm wide. Inflorescence: (10)20--35 cm. Spikelet: (1.5)2.5--5 cm, reflexed at maturity; lower glume 3--7 mm, upper 4--9 mm; lemma 8--10.5 mm, awn 5--22 mm; palea appendages 0.2--0.6(1) mm. Chromosomes: 2n=32,36.
Ecology: Wet meadows, shady banks; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR, NCoRO; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Susan J. Bainbridge
Reference: But 2007 FNANM 24:103--109, Novon 4:16--17
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Botanical illustration including Pleuropogon refractus

botanical illustration including Pleuropogon refractus

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Citation for this treatment: Susan J. Bainbridge 2012, Pleuropogon refractus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38716, accessed on December 05, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 05, 2019.

Pleuropogon refractus
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Pleuropogon refractus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Pleuropogon refractus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Pleuropogon refractus
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© 2009 Vernon Smith
Pleuropogon refractus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Pleuropogon refractus
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Pleuropogon refractus in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Pleuropogon refractus:
NCo, KR, NCoRO
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.