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Pinus muricata
BISHOP PINE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 94 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette

Pinus muricata D. Don
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 51 m, < 1.2 m wide; bark brown, ridges rough; mature crown variable, branches often large. Leaf: 2 per bundle, generally 5--15 cm, twisted or not, generally green; sheath persistent. Seed Cone: generally whorled, 5--9.7 cm, ovoid, brown, weathering gray, generally closed, persistent many years, either +- spreading, symmetric, with scale tip knobs < 3 mm, prickled, or reflexed, asymmetric, with proximal, middle scale tip knobs < 15 mm, angled, prickled; stalk 0--2 cm.
Ecology: Redwood forest, northern coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, n SnFrB, n ChI; Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California, Cedros Island.
Synonyms: Pinus remorata H. Mason
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2016. Pinus muricata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38287, accessed on February 14, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 14, 2016.


Pinus muricata
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© 2012 Aaron E. Sims
Pinus muricata
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Pinus muricata
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims

More photos of Pinus muricata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pinus muricata:
NCo, CCo, n SnFrB, n ChI;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.