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Pinus muricata
BISHOP PINE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 94 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette

Pinus muricata D. Don
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 51 m, < 1.2 m wide; bark brown, ridges rough; mature crown variable, branches often large. Leaf: 2 per bundle, generally 5--15 cm, twisted or not, generally green; sheath persistent. Seed Cone: generally whorled, 5--9.7 cm, ovoid, brown, weathering gray, generally closed, persistent many years, either +- spreading, symmetric, with scale tip knobs < 3 mm, prickled, or reflexed, asymmetric, with proximal, middle scale tip knobs < 15 mm, angled, prickled; stalk 0--2 cm.
Ecology: Redwood forest, northern coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, n SnFrB, n ChI; Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California, Cedros Island.
Synonyms: Pinus remorata H. Mason
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2016. Pinus muricata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38287, accessed on August 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on August 24, 2016.


Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims
Pinus muricata
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron E. Sims

More photos of Pinus muricata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pinus muricata:
NCo, CCo, n SnFrB, n ChI;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.