Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Pinus monticola
WESTERN WHITE PINE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: PINE
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches +- whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud +- conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5--35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2--5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed Cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3--7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 94 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: pine) Note: Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10--30 cm; seed cone 8--15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in SnFrB, northern ChI.
Unabridged Note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three varieties: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 73 m, < 2 m wide; mature bark dark gray to red-brown, in +- square blocks, +- thin; mature crown narrowly conic. Leaf: 5 per bundle, 3--10 cm, generally persistent < 4 years, generally straight, flexible, blue-green, glaucous; sheath deciduous. Seed Cone: pendent, 9--25 cm, cylindric, yellow-brown; stalk 2--5 cm; scales thinnest at tips, angled, prickle 0. Seed: < wing.
Ecology: Upper mixed-conifer to subalpine forests; Elevation: 150--3400 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, GB; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Montana.
Jepson eFlora Author: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette
Unabridged Reference: Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39--53
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Botanical illustration including Pinus monticola

botanical illustration including Pinus monticola

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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette 2012, Pinus monticola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=38285, accessed on June 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on June 17, 2019.

Pinus monticola
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Pinus monticola
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© 2014 California Academy of Sciences
Pinus monticola
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Pinus monticola
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© 2010 Keir Morse
Pinus monticola
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Pinus monticola
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Pinus monticola in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Pinus monticola:
KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, GB
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.