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Phyla nodiflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: VerbenaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4--5-toothed; corolla 4--5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4--5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
Genera In Family: +- 31 genera, +- 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PhylaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, generally mat-like. Stem: central generally stolon-like; branches decumbent to erect, glabrous or +- strigose. Leaf: opposite or clustered, strigose to appressed-hairy; hairs forked. Inflorescence: spike, +- spheric, becoming cylindric in fruit, dense; bracts ovate to wedge-shaped. Flower: calyx +- compressed, 2--4-toothed; corolla +- 2-lipped, tube generally > calyx; stamens 4; ovary 2-chambered, ovules 2, style lobes 2, stigma lateral. Fruit: nutlets 2.
Species In Genus: +- 15 species: warm temperate, subtropical America. Etymology: (Greek: clan or tribe, from clustered flowers)

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene
Stem: internodes generally < 4 cm; branches generally < 15 cm. Leaf: blade 5--30 mm, margin +- entire or generally serrate from mid-blade to tip. Inflorescence: 6--10 mm; peduncle 1.5--9 cm. Flower: corolla white to +- red. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Wet places, pond margins; Elevation: < 400 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW (exc KR, NCoRH), GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, ChI (Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina islands), PR, se DMoj, DSon; Distribution Outside California: warm temperate, tropics +- worldwide. Flowering Time: May--Nov Note: Questionably native; variation in leaf margin, leaf hairiness may reflect multiple introductions from elsewhere, including South America.
Synonyms: Phyla nodiflora var. canescens (Kunth) Moldenke; Phyla nodiflora var. incisa (Small) Moldenke; Phyla nodiflora var. reptans (Kunth) Moldenke; Phyla nodiflora var. rosea (D. Don) Moldenke;
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
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botanical illustration including Phyla nodiflora


Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2012, Phyla nodiflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 19, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 19, 2018.

Phyla nodiflora
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Phyla nodiflora
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Phyla nodiflora
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© 2009 Barry Rice
Phyla nodiflora
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Phyla nodiflora
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Phyla nodiflora
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© 2015 Barry Breckling

More photos of Phyla nodiflora in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Phyla nodiflora:
NW (exc KR, NCoRH), GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, ChI (Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina islands), PR, se DMoj, DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.