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Phoradendron bolleanum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViscaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, generally +- green, parasitic on aboveground parts of woody plants; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: brittle; 2° branches generally many. Leaf: simple, entire, opposite, 4-ranked, with blade or scale-like (then each pair generally fused). Inflorescence: spikes or cymes, axillary or terminal; bracts opposite, 4-ranked, scale-like, each pair fused. Flower: unisexual, radial, 2--4 mm; perianth parts in 1 series. Staminate Flower: perianth parts 3--4(7); anthers generally sessile, opposite and generally on perianth parts. Pistillate Flower: perianth parts generally 2--4; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, style unbranched, stigma +- obscure. Fruit: berry, shiny. Seed: 1(2), without thickened coat, gelatinous.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, +- 450 species: tropics, generally northern temperate. Toxicity: All parts of most members may be TOXIC. Note: Sometimes included in Loranthaceae; parasitic on plants in many other families.
eFlora Treatment Author: Job Kuijt
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PhoradendronView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MISTLETOE
Habit: Perennial, woody at least at base, glabrous or short-hairy. Stem: generally > 20 cm, not angled, green, less often +- red. Leaf: with blade or < 1 mm, scale-like. Inflorescence: spikes, few- to many-flowered, peduncled; flowers +- sunken into axis. Flower: perianth parts generally 3. Staminate Flower: anthers 2-chambered. Pistillate Flower: perianth parts persistent. Fruit: +- 3--6 mm, +- spheric, 1-colored, white, pink, or +- red, bird-dispersed; pedicel 0. Chromosomes: n=14.
Species In Genus: +- 240 species: temperate, tropical America. Etymology: (Greek: tree thief)
Unabridged Note: Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst. (Phoradendron serotinum (DC.) A. Gray; name change relative to TJM2 made necessary by ruling of Committee for Spermatophyta) collected in Texas for sale nationally in Christmas trade; other species similarly important locally. Plants at some sites (e.g., Pinnacles National Monument) do not conform to key(s) and/or descriptions, as to hosts and/or morphology (see Kuijt 2003); such problems thus far unsolved, though minimized here.

Phoradendron bolleanum (Seem.) Eichler
Stem: 3--6 dm, erect-spreading, green to olive-green, glabrous; internodes 6--22 mm. Leaf: (5)10--25 mm, 2--8 mm wide, oblanceolate-oblong. Staminate Inflorescence: fertile internodes 1(2), 6--20-flowered. Pistillate Inflorescence: fertile internodes generally 1, 2-flowered. Fruit: +- 4 mm, white to straw-colored or +- pink, glabrous.
Ecology: Pinyon/juniper woodland, on Hesperocyparis, Juniperus, locally on Abies concolor; Elevation: 200--2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoR, CaR, n SNH, c&s SN, CW, TR, PR, GB, D; Distribution Outside California: to southern Oregon, central and southern Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Synonyms: Phoradendron bolleanum subsp. densum (Torr. ex Trel.) Wiens; Phoradendron bolleanum subsp. pauciflorum (Torr.) Wiens; Phoradendron bolleanum var. densum (Torr. ex Trel.) Fosberg; Phoradendron bolleanum var. pauciflorum (Torr.) Fosberg; Phoradendron densum Torr. ex Trel.; Phoradendron pauciflorum Torr.
eFlora Treatment Author: Job Kuijt
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Citation for this treatment: Job Kuijt 2016. Phoradendron bolleanum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Phoradendron bolleanum
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© 2012 Keir Morse
Phoradendron bolleanum
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© 2007 California Academy of Sciences
Phoradendron bolleanum
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Phoradendron bolleanum
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© 2012 Keir Morse
Phoradendron bolleanum
click for enlargement
© 2012 Keir Morse
Phoradendron bolleanum
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© 2012 Neal Kramer

More photos of Phoradendron bolleanum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Phoradendron bolleanum:
KR, NCoR, CaR, n SNH, c&s SN, CW, TR, PR, GB, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.