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Vascular Plants of California
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Pholistoma racemosum


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: PholistomaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual, fleshy. Stem: prostrate or reclined, many-branched, brittle; angles +- glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles. Leaf: cauline, lower opposite, upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnate-lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles both surfaces. Inflorescence: terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers 1; pedicels present. Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobes +- = tube, generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary bristly-hairy, chamber appearing 1, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2. Fruit: capsule, spheric, stout-bristly-hairy. Seed: 1--8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed.
Species In Genus: 3 species: California, Arizona, Baja California. Etymology: (Greek: scale mouth)
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse
Unabridged Reference: Constance 1939 Bull Torrey Bot Club 66:341--352
Pholistoma racemosum (A. Gray) Constance
NATIVE
Stem: 2--6 dm. Leaf: petiole narrow-winged, clasping; lower leaves 3--10 cm, 2--8 cm wide, blade ovate to +- deltate, base cordate or truncate, tip obtuse, lobes 5--9, obtuse or acute, entire or 3--5-toothed. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2--6 generally in cymes; pedicel 5--30 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 2--4 mm, +- lanceolate, sinus appendages < 2 mm; corolla 4--10 mm, 5--15 mm wide, white to blue; style 1--3 mm. Fruit: 5--8 mm wide, enclosed in calyx. Seed: 4--8. Chromosomes: n=9.
Ecology: Moist shaded, areas, hillsides, ravines, ocean bluffs, coastal scrub; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, ChI, PR; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse
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Botanical illustration including Pholistoma racemosum

botanical illustration including Pholistoma racemosum

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Citation for this treatment: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse 2012, Pholistoma racemosum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=37887, accessed on October 20, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 20, 2019.

Pholistoma racemosum
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Pholistoma racemosum
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Pholistoma racemosum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Pholistoma racemosum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Pholistoma racemosum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Pholistoma racemosum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Pholistoma racemosum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Pholistoma racemosum:
SCo, ChI, PR
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.