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Pholistoma membranaceum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: PholistomaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, fleshy. Stem: prostrate or reclined, many-branched, brittle; angles +- glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles. Leaf: cauline, lower opposite, upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnate-lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles both surfaces. Inflorescence: terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers 1; pedicels present. Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobes +- = tube, generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary bristly-hairy, chamber appearing 1, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2. Fruit: capsule, spheric, stout-bristly-hairy. Seed: 1--8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed.
Species In Genus: 3 species: California, Arizona, Baja California. Etymology: (Greek: scale mouth)
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse

Pholistoma membranaceum (Benth.) Constance
NATIVE
Stem: 5--90 cm, generally glaucous. Leaf: petiole narrow-winged, not clasping; lower leaves 2--13 cm, 1--8 cm wide, blade oblong to ovate, base cordate or truncate, tip obtuse, lobes 5--11, oblong, obtuse, entire or 1-toothed. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2--10 in cymes; pedicel 5--20 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 1--3 mm, oblong, sinus appendages 0; corolla 3--6 mm, < 10 mm wide, white, lobe generally with purple spot; style 1--3 mm. Fruit: 2--4 mm wide, not enclosed in calyx. Seed: 1--2. Chromosomes: n=9.
Ecology: Beaches, bluffs, ravines, wooded slopes, desert washes; Elevation: 40--1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s SNF, Teh, SnJV, CW, SW, D; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--May
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse
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Citation for this treatment: Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse 2016. Pholistoma membranaceum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37886, accessed on May 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 24, 2016.


Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 2003 Michael Charters
Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 2005 Christopher L. Christie
Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 1998 Christopher L. Christie
Pholistoma membranaceum
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© 2010 Thomas Stoughton

More photos of Pholistoma membranaceum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pholistoma membranaceum:
c&s SNF, Teh, SnJV, CW, SW, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.