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Pholisma arenarium

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: PholismaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, non-green, parasitic. Stem: < 1.5 m. Leaf: 5--25 mm, linear to triangular, glandular. Flower: 7--10 mm; ovary chambers 10--32. Fruit: capsule, +- circumscissile below middle.
Species In Genus: 3 species: southern California, western Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Etymology: (Greek: scale, from scaly stem)
eFlora Treatment Author: George Yatskievych

Pholisma arenarium Nutt. ex Hook.
NATIVE
Stem: 3--8 dm, 1--2 cm diam. Flower: calyx lobes linear to spoon-shaped; corolla lavender to blue-purple, abaxially puberulent, margin white; ovary chambers 10--20. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Ecology: Uncommon. Sandy soil, coastal dunes, chaparral, desert; Elevation: < 1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo, SCo, PR, D; Distribution Outside California: western Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul, Oct Note: Parasitic on Croton, Eriodictyon, various shrubby Asteraceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: George Yatskievych
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Citation for this treatment: George Yatskievych 2016. Pholisma arenarium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37881, accessed on May 01, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 01, 2016.


Pholisma arenarium
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Pholisma arenarium
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© 2015 Aaron Schusteff
Pholisma arenarium
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Pholisma arenarium
click for enlargement
© 2014 Neal Kramer
Pholisma arenarium
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Pholisma arenarium
click for enlargement
© 2012 Neal Kramer

More photos of Pholisma arenarium in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pholisma arenarium:
CCo, SCo, PR, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.