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Phacelia ramosissima

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: PhaceliaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, taprooted or from +- thick caudex. Leaf: generally cauline, generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally +- reduced upward. Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally <= 5 mm, generally straight. Flower: sepals generally 5, generally fused at base, generally equal, generally +- alike, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, at least some persistent and withering in fruit in some species, rotate to tubular or bell- or funnel-shaped, +- white, blue, purple, pink or yellow, tube and throat not always clearly differentiated, generally glabrous inside, scales of tube base 0 or free from or fused to filament bases, generally white, nectary gland on petal midvein generally 0, each petal with generally 0, sometimes 2--many translucent areas, 2 or 4 of which parallel; stamens generally attached at same level, generally equal, generally exserted, bases generally not wider, with 2 or generally 0 wings, filaments generally white, pollen generally tan; ovary chamber 1, sometimes appearing as 2 due to intrusion of the 2 placentas, placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy proximal to lobes, disk proximal to ovary generally inconspicuous. Fruit: capsule, oblong to spheric, generally rounded at base, generally beaked. Seed: 1--many (number sometimes due to ovule abortion), oblong to spheric, generally brown; abaxially generally pitted or cross-furrowed.
Species In Genus: +- 210 species: America; some cultivated for ornamental. Etymology: (Greek: cluster, from dense inflorescence) Toxicity: Dermatitis caused by contact with hairs, especially glandular, of P. campanularia, P. crenulata, P. ixodes, P. minor, P. parryi, P. pedicellata (Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39--44). Note: Some California per species intergrade, hybridize, difficult to distinguish. Phacelia ixodes Kellogg, included in TJM (1993), not known from California. Since TJM2, Phacelia dalesiana J.T. Howell transferred to Howellanthus as Howellanthus dalesianus (J.T. Howell) Walden & R. Patt. Regarding indument in this treatment: minute (for e.g., puberulent) < 0.2 mm; short = 0.2--2 mm; long > 2 mm.
eFlora Treatment Author: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen

Phacelia ramosissima Douglas ex Lehm.
Habit: Perennial herb 30--150 cm. Stem: prostrate to ascending, many-branched, glabrous or densely hairy, glandular or not. Leaf: blade 40--200 mm, generally > petiole, oblong to widely ovate, compound; leaflets +- sessile, elliptic to oblong, coarsely toothed or lobed, lobes often toothed. Flower: calyx lobes 3--6 mm, generally not longer in fruit, +- not alike, lanceolate to ovate to oblanceolate to +- spoon-shaped; corolla 5--8 mm, funnel- to bell-shaped, white to lavender to blue, scales fused to filament bases, ovate; stamens 7--10 mm, unequal, glabrous, filaments white or purple; style 7--10 mm, cleft 2/3, glabrous. Fruit: 3--4 mm, ovoid, stiff-hairy. Seed: 2--4, 2--3 mm, pitted. Chromosomes: n=11.
Ecology: Diverse habitats, including sand dunes, salt marshes, coastal bluffs, canyons, washes, flats, meadows, conifer forest; Elevation: < 3800 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW (exc NCoRO), CaRH, SN, CW, SW (exc s ChI), Wrn, SNE, n DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, Baja California. Flowering Time: Apr--Oct
Synonyms: Phacelia ramosissima var. austrolitoralis Munz; Phacelia ramosissima var. eremophila (Greene) J.F. Macbr.; Phacelia ramosissima var. latifolia (Torr.) Cronquist; Phacelia ramosissima var. montereyensis Munz; Phacelia ramosissima var. subglabra M. Peck; Phacelia ramosissima var. suffrutescens Parry; Phacelia ramosissima var. valida M. Peck
eFlora Treatment Author: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen
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botanical illustration including Phacelia ramosissima


Citation for this treatment: Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen 2017. Phacelia ramosissima, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 19, 2017.

Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2008 Steve Matson
Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Phacelia ramosissima
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© 2013 Keir Morse

More photos of Phacelia ramosissima in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Phacelia ramosissima:
NW (exc NCoRO), CaRH, SN, CW, SW (exc s ChI), Wrn, SNE, n DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.