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Vascular Plants of California
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Layia fremontii


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: LayiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual 2--6(13) dm. Stem: generally ascending to erect, often glandular, generally +- purple or brown. Leaf: basal in rosette or opposite, cauline generally alternate, sessile, generally linear to lanceolate, or oblanceolate, minutely dentate to (2-)pinnately lobed, glabrous or hairy, distal often stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, 1 or in +- open clusters; involucre +- hemispheric to bell-shaped, obconic, or urn-shaped, 2--15+ mm diam; phyllaries 1 per ray flower, in 1(2) series, lanceolate to oblanceolate, generally folded completely around ray ovary, falling with fruit, generally +- hairy or scabrous, often glandular; receptacle flat to slightly convex, minutely bristly, paleae free, generally in 1 series between ray and disk flowers, or subtending +- each disk flower, phyllary-like, more scarious. Ray Flower: (0)3--27; corolla white, often aging +- pink, to yellow or proximally yellow and distally pale yellow or +- white. Disk Flower: 5--125; corolla yellow, puberulent, sometimes glandular, tube < throat, lobes deltate; anthers +- dark purple or yellow to +- brown, tips narrowly triangular or +- lanceolate to ovate; style branches awl-shaped, bristly.; anther bases obtuse to sagittate. Fruit: generally 2--5 mm, generally club-shaped, black; ray fruit compressed front-to-back, +- curved, beakless, glabrous or sparsely hairy, pappus 0; disk fruit +- straight, generally +- hairy, pappus 0 or of 1--32 awns, scales, or bristles.
Species In Genus: 14 species: western North America. Etymology: (George T. Lay, early 19th century English plant collector) Note: Generally self-sterile (except Layia carnosa, Layia hieracioides, sometimes Layia chrysanthemoides).
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin & Susan J. Bainbridge
Reference: Baldwin et al. 2006 FNANM 21:262--269
Unabridged Reference: Baldwin 2006 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 93:64--93
Layia fremontii (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Plant < 40 cm, glandless, not strongly scented. Stem: not purple-streaked. Leaf: < 7(9) cm, linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate; proximal leaves < 30-lobed, often +- to midvein. Inflorescence: peduncle < 9 cm; involucre 3--11+ mm diam, +- hemispheric; phyllaries 4--11 mm, +- papillate-scabrous, tip often > folded base, basal margins interlocked by cottony hairs; receptacle paleate +- throughout. Ray Flower: 3--15; ray 5--18(23) mm, proximally yellow, distally white- or light-yellow. Disk Flower: 4--100+, 3.5--5.5 mm; anthers +- dark purple. Fruit: ray fruit glabrous; disk pappus of 9--12 scales, 2--5 mm, +- equal, lanceolate, white to +- brown, glabrous, tip long-tapered. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Grassy or open, heavy or shallow soil, including serpentine; Elevation: < 800 m. Bioregional Distribution: c NCoRO (rare, Mendocino Co.), CaRF, SNF, GV. Flowering Time: Feb--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Bruce G. Baldwin & Susan J. Bainbridge
Reference: Baldwin et al. 2006 FNANM 21:262--269
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botanical illustration including Layia fremontii

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Citation for this treatment: Bruce G. Baldwin & Susan J. Bainbridge 2012, Layia fremontii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=3747, accessed on October 20, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 20, 2019.

Layia fremontii
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Layia fremontii
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Layia fremontii
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Layia fremontii
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Layia fremontii
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© 2005 Christopher L. Christie
Layia fremontii
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© 2009 Neal Kramer

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Geographic subdivisions for Layia fremontii:
c NCoRO (rare, Mendocino Co.), CaRF, SNF, GV.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.