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Vascular Plants of California
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Pedicularis groenlandica
ELEPHANT'S HEAD


Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BROOMRAPE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 101 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: PedicularisView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: LOUSEWORT
Habit: Perennial herb, +- green. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally 1--several from generally short caudex. Leaf: alternate, generally +- basal, generally < inflorescence, toothed or generally > 7-lobed, generally reduced distally on stem; petiole generally < blade. Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like; bracts (at least proximal) generally +- like distal leaves; pedicels 1--6 mm. Flower: calyx lobes (2,4)5, distal-most generally shortest (all generally < tube), lateral fused in pairs; corolla white or yellow to red or purple, upper lip hood- or beak-like, curved or not, lower lip 3-lobed, narrow to fan-shaped, central lobe generally smallest; fertile stamens 4, generally glabrous, anthers generally included, sacs 2 per stamen, equal; stigma head-like, generally exserted. Fruit: generally +- ovate or lanceolate in outline, asymmetric, opening mostly on upper side. Seed: smooth or netted.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: cool wet northern temperate, circumboreal, South America. Etymology: (Latin: lice, from belief that ingestion by stock promoted lice infestation)
eFlora Treatment Author: Linda Ann Vorobik
Reference: Ree 2005 Int J Pl Sci 166:595--613
Pedicularis groenlandica Retz.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant +- glabrous. Stem: 8--80 cm. Leaf: basal 3--25 cm, +- lanceolate; segments 25--51, linear to oblong, toothed. Inflorescence: 1--30 cm, generally glabrous; proximal bracts +- = flower. Flower: calyx 3.5--6 mm, lobes +- equal, densely short-ciliate; corolla 8--15 mm, light pink to red-purple, glabrous, tube 4--10 mm, upper lip 7--18 mm, hood curved downward, beak 6--13 mm, narrow, curved upward, lower lip 3--7 mm, lateral lobes resembling ears; anthers 1.5--2.5 mm, base acute. Fruit: 6--9 mm. Seed: 2.5--4 mm, surface netted.
Ecology: Wet meadows, streamsides, bogs; Elevation: 1000--3600 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, SNH; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern North America, New Mexico. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
Unabridged Synonyms: Pedicularis groenlandica var. surrecta (Benth.) A. Gray
Jepson eFlora Author: Linda Ann Vorobik
Reference: Ree 2005 Int J Pl Sci 166:595--613
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Botanical illustration including Pedicularis groenlandica

botanical illustration including Pedicularis groenlandica

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Citation for this treatment: Linda Ann Vorobik 2012, Pedicularis groenlandica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=36574, accessed on May 25, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on May 25, 2019.

Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2010 Christopher L. Christie
Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2010 Christopher L. Christie
Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2013 Barry Breckling
Pedicularis groenlandica
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© 2009 Barry Rice

More photos of Pedicularis groenlandica in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Pedicularis groenlandica:
KR, CaR, SNH
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.