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Pectocarya penicillata
NORTHERN PECTOCARYA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: PectocaryaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PECTOCARYA, COMBSEED
Habit: Annual. Stem: 2--40 cm, strigose, breaking at nodes or not. Leaf: generally alternate, generally 0.5--4 cm, +- linear, strigose to sharp-bristled. Inflorescence: bracted or not; pedicel in fruit generally free from nutlets, generally recurved. Flower: basal cleistogamous flowers generally 0; calyx generally < fruit, lobes free, not arched over 1 nutlet, with hooked or straight prickles, in fruit +- equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others; corolla funnel-shaped, white, limb 0.5--2.5 mm diam, appendages white or yellow; style attached to receptacle, unbranched, generally persistent, stigma 1, head-like. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, generally paired, often dissimilar in shape, ornamentation, margin width, spreading, 1--4.5 mm, generally compressed, marginal prickles straight or hooked at tip.
Species In Genus: 15 species: to British Columbia, Wyoming, Texas, northwestern Mexico; South America. Etymology: (Greek: comb nut, from bristly to dentate nutlet margins of some species) Note: Nutlets of basal, cleistogamous flowers (present in Pectocarya heterocarpa, Pectocarya peninsularis) unusual, not to be used in key.
Unabridged Note: Flowers generally of 1 kind with observable white corolla occurring on the cauline inflorescence sections, except for Pectocarya heterocarpa, Pectocarya peninsularis, which also produce cleistogamous flowers, without an observable corolla, that occur at stem bases and produce nutlet shapes not represented in the diagnostic key.

Pectocarya penicillata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC.
NATIVE
Stem: prostrate to decumbent, 2--25 cm. Inflorescence: pedicel in fruit ascending, 1.3--2.5 mm. Fruit: nutlets 1.6--2.4 mm, oblanceolate, straight, +- equal in width, bristled at tip to above +- middle; margins wavy, erect to incurved, not or +- dentate. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Disturbed sites, roadsides; Elevation: 90--2100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc NCo, CCo), MP (exc Wrn), W&I, D; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, western Wyoming, Arizona, northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--May Note: D plants with margins of 2 nutlets narrower than other 2, bristles from nutlet base to tip, 2n=48, may be distinct tetraploid, as yet undescribed hybrid sp.; see Cronquist (1984) Intermountain Flora, Vol 4, for description, illustration.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Pectocarya penicillata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36530, accessed on July 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 29, 2016.


Pectocarya penicillata
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© 2014 Keir Morse
Pectocarya penicillata
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Pectocarya penicillata
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Pectocarya penicillata
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Pectocarya penicillata
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Pectocarya penicillata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson

More photos of Pectocarya penicillata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Pectocarya penicillata:
CA-FP (exc NCo, CCo), MP (exc Wrn), W&I, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.