Jepson eFlora: Taxon page    
    Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Parapholis incurva

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: ParapholisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual. Stem: decumbent to erect, 5--45 cm, branched, glabrous; nodes generally purple. Leaf: sheath 1--6 cm; ligule +- 1.5 mm, membranous; blade flat to +- inrolled, ribbed, upper surface scabrous. Inflorescence: spike-like, 3--18 cm, rigid, cylindric, straight to strongly curved, breaking at nodes; spikelets alternate, 2-ranked, appressed, embedded in axis, falling with axis segment. Spikelet: glumes 2, edge-to-edge or slightly overlapping, 4--7 mm, lanceolate, keel to 1 side near base or obscure, margin translucent, +- enclosing floret, 5-veined; florets 1--2, bisexual; lemma 3.5--5.5 mm, translucent, 3-veined; palea +- = lemma, translucent. Fruit: +- 3.5 mm.
Species In Genus: 5 species: native to Europe. Etymology: (Greek: scales beside, from glume orientation) Note: See Hainardia.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas Worley
Reference: Worley 2007 FNANM 24:687--688
Unabridged Reference: Runemark 1962 Bot Not 115:1--17

Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb.
Stem: decumbent to erect, 3--35 cm, branched throughout or not. Leaf: sheath 1--4 cm; blade 1--10 cm, 1--3 mm wide, generally inrolled. Inflorescence: 2--15 cm; spikelets 3--20. Spikelet: glume keel +- 0.5 mm; floret occasionally cleistogamous. Chromosomes: 2n=32,36,38,42.
Ecology: Disturbed, well drained soils of salt marshes, generally above highest tide level; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, e NCoRI, w ScV, n SnJV, CCo, SCo, ChI; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Mexico; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
Jepson eFlora Author: Thomas Worley
Reference: Worley 2007 FNANM 24:687--688
Unabridged Reference: Runemark 1962 Bot Not 115:1--17
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Parapholis
Next taxon: Parapholis strigosa

Name Search
botanical illustration including Parapholis incurva


Citation for this treatment: Thomas Worley 2012, Parapholis incurva, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 11, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 11, 2018.

Parapholis incurva
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Parapholis incurva
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Parapholis incurva
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Parapholis incurva
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer

More photos of Parapholis incurva in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Parapholis incurva:
NCo, e NCoRI, w ScV, n SnJV, CCo, SCo, ChI;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.