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Papaver somniferum
OPIUM POPPY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PapaveraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: POPPY FAMILY
Habit: Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1--3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2--3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2--many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, +- nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
Genera In Family: 25--30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Note: Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300--301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (+- like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan & Curtis Clark, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PapaverView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual [perennial herb]; sap white, orange, or red. Leaf: basal and cauline [or basal], deeply pinnate-lobed, glabrous or hairy, glaucous or not. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, 1-flowered. Flower: bud nodding; sepals 2, shed at flower; petals generally 4, free, obovate to wedge-shaped, white to red or purple; stamens many, free; placentas 4--20, style 0(1), stigma disk- or head-like, lobes 4--20. Fruit: dehiscent by pores below stigma. Seed: many, < 0.7 mm, reniform, net-ridged, brown or black.
Species In Genus: 70+ species: especially Eurasia. Etymology: (Latin: poppy) Note: Papaver dubium L. (fruit +- oblong, glabrous; peduncle hairs near flower appressed, stiff), perhaps in California as waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan

Papaver somniferum L.
WAIF
Habit: Plant 60--120 cm, glaucous, hairs 0 or sparse. Leaf: 10--20 cm; cauline bases clasping stem. Flower: petals 4--6 cm, white to red or purple, generally with dark spots at base; filaments generally white, anthers yellow. Fruit: 3--5 cm, round.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fallow fields; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: United States; native to Eurasia. Toxicity: TOXIC, source of morphine, other alkaloids. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Cult.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan
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Previous taxon: Papaver rhoeas
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Citation for this treatment: Gary L. Hannan 2016. Papaver somniferum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36229, accessed on December 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 02, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Papaver somniferum:
CA-FP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.