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Papaver somniferum
OPIUM POPPY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PapaveraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: POPPY FAMILY
Habit: Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1--3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2--3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2--many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, +- nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
Genera In Family: 25--30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Note: Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300--301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (+- like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan & Curtis Clark, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: PapaverView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual [perennial herb]; sap white, orange, or red. Leaf: basal and cauline [or basal], deeply pinnate-lobed, glabrous or hairy, glaucous or not. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, 1-flowered. Flower: bud nodding; sepals 2, shed at flower; petals generally 4, free, obovate to wedge-shaped, white to red or purple; stamens many, free; placentas 4--20, style 0(1), stigma disk- or head-like, lobes 4--20. Fruit: dehiscent by pores below stigma. Seed: many, < 0.7 mm, reniform, net-ridged, brown or black.
Species In Genus: 70+ species: especially Eurasia. Etymology: (Latin: poppy) Note: Papaver dubium L. (fruit +- oblong, glabrous; peduncle hairs near flower appressed, stiff), perhaps in California as waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan

Papaver somniferum L.
WAIF
Habit: Plant 60--120 cm, glaucous, hairs 0 or sparse. Leaf: 10--20 cm; cauline bases clasping stem. Flower: petals 4--6 cm, white to red or purple, generally with dark spots at base; filaments generally white, anthers yellow. Fruit: 3--5 cm, round.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fallow fields; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: United States; native to Eurasia. Toxicity: TOXIC, source of morphine, other alkaloids. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug Note: Cult.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary L. Hannan
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Previous taxon: Papaver rhoeas
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Citation for this treatment: Gary L. Hannan 2016. Papaver somniferum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36229, accessed on February 12, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 12, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Papaver somniferum:
CA-FP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.