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Oxytheca perfoliata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Genus: OxythecaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, erect to spreading, glabrous or sparsely glandular. Leaf: basal, linear to narrow, awns 0; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: terminal, cyme-like; peduncles 0 or erect or reflexed; involucres 1, tubular, teeth (3)4, generally glabrous, awned. Flower: 2--10, glabrous or hairy and glandular; perianth white to rose or green-yellow, lobes 6, entire; stamens 9. Fruit: brown to maroon, generally elliptic, glabrous; embryo curved.
Species In Genus: 3 species: temperate western North America, southern South America. Etymology: (Greek: sharp case, for awned involucre) Note: Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Acanthoscyphus, Sidotheca.
eFlora Treatment Author: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti

Oxytheca perfoliata Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Plant spreading, 0.6--2 dm, 0.5--4 dm diam. Leaf: blades 1--6 cm, 0.3--1.5 cm wide, glabrous, margins ciliate. Inflorescence: bracts 4--5, fused around node, 1--2.5 cm diam, glabrous or glandular, awns 1--3 mm; peduncles 0 or erect, 0.3--0.8 mm; involucre 2--5 mm, occasionally sparsely glandular, lobes 4, awns 2--3 mm, +- red. Flower: 5--10, 1.5--2.5 mm; perianth white to yellow-green or pink. Fruit: 1.5--2 mm. Chromosomes: n=20.
Ecology: Common. Sand or gravel; Elevation: 600--1900 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SnJV, GB, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: to southwestern Utah, northwestern Arizona. Flowering Time: Apr--Aug
Synonyms: Eriogonum perfoliatum (Torr. & A. Gray) S. Stokes
eFlora Treatment Author: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti
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botanical illustration including Oxytheca perfoliata


Citation for this treatment: James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti 2016. Oxytheca perfoliata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2014 James Morefield
Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2016 Aaron Schusteff
Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2010 California Academy of Sciences
Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2012 Neal Kramer
Oxytheca perfoliata
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© 2007 Steve Matson

More photos of Oxytheca perfoliata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Oxytheca perfoliata:
s SnJV, GB, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.