Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Olea europaea

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OleaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: OLIVE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4--15; petals (0)4--6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4--5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2--4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber.
Genera In Family: +- 25 genera, 900 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental (Forsythia; Jasminum, jasmine; Ligustrum, privet; Syringa, lilac) or food (Olea, olive).
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OleaView Description 

Common Name: OLIVE
Habit: Tree [shrub]. Leaf: simple, opposite, short-petioled, entire, leathery. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, axillary or terminal. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx 4-toothed to -lobed; corolla rotate, lobes 4; stamens 2; ovary 1. Fruit: drupe.
Species In Genus: 20 species: tropics, warm temperate Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)

Olea europaea L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Tree generally < 10 m. Stem: trunks becoming gnarled; bark gray, with age furrowed. Leaf: petiole 2--7 mm; blade 20--70 mm, 6--16 mm wide, narrowly elliptical to oblanceolate, green adaxially, closely silver-scaly abaxially. Inflorescence: axillary, narrow raceme-like panicle, 15--40 mm, branches opposite; bract 1--3 mm; pedicel 1--3 mm; flowers in 1--3s. Flower: calyx cup-like, 4-toothed, +- 1 mm; corolla 2.5--4 mm, white, tube < 1 mm, lobes 4, 2--3.5 mm, 1.5--2 mm wide, ovate-elliptical, margins inrolled; stamens 2, filaments < 1 mm; anthers yellow, 1.5--2.5 mm; ovary superior, +- 1 mm, style < 1 mm, stigma +- head-shaped, +- 1 mm; some ovaries not developing. Fruit: 9--20 mm, ovoid, oily, green, becoming black. Chromosomes: 2n=46.
Ecology: Generally waif, persisting from cultivation; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoR, GV, CCo, SnFrB, w SCoRO, SCo, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island); Distribution Outside California: native to western Asia. Flowering Time: Feb--Jun Note: Introduced widely; cultivated for food and cooking oil in Mediterranean for +- 6000 years.
Synonyms: Olea europaea subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson
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Citation for this treatment: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson 2016. Olea europaea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35090, accessed on December 08, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 08, 2016.


Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer

More photos of Olea europaea in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Olea europaea:
s NCoR, GV, CCo, SnFrB, w SCoRO, SCo, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.