Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Olea europaea

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OleaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: OLIVE FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4--15; petals (0)4--6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4--5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2--4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber.
Genera In Family: +- 25 genera, 900 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental (Forsythia; Jasminum, jasmine; Ligustrum, privet; Syringa, lilac) or food (Olea, olive).
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OleaView Description 

Common Name: OLIVE
Habit: Tree [shrub]. Leaf: simple, opposite, short-petioled, entire, leathery. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, axillary or terminal. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx 4-toothed to -lobed; corolla rotate, lobes 4; stamens 2; ovary 1. Fruit: drupe.
Species In Genus: 20 species: tropics, warm temperate Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)

Olea europaea L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Tree generally < 10 m. Stem: trunks becoming gnarled; bark gray, with age furrowed. Leaf: petiole 2--7 mm; blade 20--70 mm, 6--16 mm wide, narrowly elliptical to oblanceolate, green adaxially, closely silver-scaly abaxially. Inflorescence: axillary, narrow raceme-like panicle, 15--40 mm, branches opposite; bract 1--3 mm; pedicel 1--3 mm; flowers in 1--3s. Flower: calyx cup-like, 4-toothed, +- 1 mm; corolla 2.5--4 mm, white, tube < 1 mm, lobes 4, 2--3.5 mm, 1.5--2 mm wide, ovate-elliptical, margins inrolled; stamens 2, filaments < 1 mm; anthers yellow, 1.5--2.5 mm; ovary superior, +- 1 mm, style < 1 mm, stigma +- head-shaped, +- 1 mm; some ovaries not developing. Fruit: 9--20 mm, ovoid, oily, green, becoming black. Chromosomes: 2n=46.
Ecology: Generally waif, persisting from cultivation; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoR, GV, CCo, SnFrB, w SCoRO, SCo, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island); Distribution Outside California: native to western Asia. Flowering Time: Feb--Jun Note: Introduced widely; cultivated for food and cooking oil in Mediterranean for +- 6000 years.
Synonyms: Olea europaea subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green
eFlora Treatment Author: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson
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Citation for this treatment: Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson 2016. Olea europaea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35090, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 28, 2016.


Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Olea europaea
click for enlargement
© 2011 Neal Kramer

More photos of Olea europaea in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Olea europaea:
s NCoR, GV, CCo, SnFrB, w SCoRO, SCo, n ChI (Santa Cruz Island);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.