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Oenothera xylocarpa

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Species In Genus: 145 species: America, some widely naturalized. Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.

Oenothera xylocarpa Coville
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb, rosetted, gray-green; hairs short (on flower long, coarse), erect; taproot fleshy. Stem: 0. Leaf: main segment +- round to oblanceolate, 26--62 mm; lobes few, generally small. Inflorescence: flowers in axils. Flower: hypanthium 27--45(55) mm; sepals 25--30 mm, tips not free in bud; petals 25--38 mm, yellow fading deep salmon-red. Fruit: 35--90 mm, 7--11 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, curved, twisted, wrinkled. Seed: in 1 row (or near base 2 rows) per chamber, 2.4--3.2 mm, obovate; tip generally truncate, coarsely wrinkled, papillate; 1 side with 2 small ridges. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Gravelly to pumice meadows, Jeffrey-pine or lodgepole-pine/fir forests; Elevation: 2200--3100 m. Bioregional Distribution: c&s SNH; Distribution Outside California: western Nevada. Flowering Time: Jul--Aug Note: Generally cross-pollinated. Locally common.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner
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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner 2016. Oenothera xylocarpa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35066, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 28, 2016.


Oenothera xylocarpa
click for enlargement
© 1984 Gary A. Monroe
Oenothera xylocarpa
click for enlargement
© 2001 Larry Blakely
Oenothera xylocarpa
click for enlargement
© 2002 Gary A. Monroe
Oenothera xylocarpa
click for enlargement
© 1984 Gary A. Monroe
Oenothera xylocarpa
click for enlargement
© 2002 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Oenothera xylocarpa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera xylocarpa:
c&s SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.