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Oenothera primiveris

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Species In Genus: 145 species: America, some widely naturalized. Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Unabridged Reference: Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1--96; Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1--91; Wagner 2005 Syst Bot 30(2):332--355

Oenothera primiveris A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, rosetted, minutely strigose, in inflorescence generally glandular; hairs also coarse, with red, blister-like base or not. Stem: generally 0 (sometimes erect or ascending, < 3.5 dm). Leaf: 4--28 cm, oblanceolate, wavy-dentate to 1--2-pinnately lobed, green to gray-green. Inflorescence: flowers in axils. Flower: hypanthium 20--72 mm; sepals 7--30 mm, free tips in bud 0; petals 6--40 mm, yellow fading red-purple to orange. Fruit: 10--60 mm, 4--8 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, straight, curved, or S-shaped. Seed: 3--3.5 mm, irregularly obovate to oblanceolate, papillate, 1 side coarsely wrinkled in distal 1/2, other side with thick, U-shaped area forming groove and small cavity at tip. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Sandy flats, low hills, dune margins, arroyos; Elevation: 30--1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: D; Distribution Outside California: to Utah, Texas, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: Often self-pollinated, less commonly not.
Synonyms: Oenothera primiveris A. Gray subsp. bufonis (M.E. Jones) Munz;
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner
Reference: Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1--240
Unabridged Reference: Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1--96; Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1--91; Wagner 2005 Syst Bot 30(2):332--355
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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner 2017, Oenothera primiveris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 5, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=35043, accessed on April 26, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on April 26, 2018.


Oenothera primiveris
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© 2018 Steve Matson
Oenothera primiveris subsp. bufonis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Oenothera primiveris
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© 2009 Christopher L. Christie
Oenothera primiveris
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© 2018 Steve Matson
Oenothera primiveris subsp. bufonis
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© 2005 James M. Andre
Oenothera primiveris subsp. bufonis
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© 2005 Steve Matson

More photos of Oenothera primiveris in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera primiveris:
D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.