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Oenothera laciniata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Species In Genus: 145 species: America, some widely naturalized. Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.

Oenothera laciniata Hill
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, short-lived perennial herb, rosetted, minutely strigose; hairs distally generally also long, spreading, and glandular. Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.5--5 dm. Leaf: cauline 2--10 cm, narrowly oblanceolate to +- elliptic or oblong, +- entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in distal axils; buds curved upward. Flower: hypanthium 12--35 mm; sepals 5--15 mm, free tips in bud 0.3--3 mm; petals 5--22 mm, yellow fading orange. Fruit: 20--50 mm, 2--4 mm wide, cylindric. Seed: 1--1.8 mm, +- spheric or widely elliptic, pitted. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Open, generally sandy, disturbed places; Elevation: generally < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CW, SW, DMoj; Distribution Outside California: native to eastern United States; widely naturalized, but occurrences scattered. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Self-pollinated. Permanent translocation heterozygote.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner
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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner 2016. Oenothera laciniata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=35016, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Oenothera laciniata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Oenothera laciniata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Oenothera laciniata
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling

More photos of Oenothera laciniata in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera laciniata:
CW, SW, DMoj;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.