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Oenothera flava

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OnagraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2--7); petals 4(2--7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
Genera In Family: 22 genera, +- 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). Note: Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: OenotheraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: EVENING-PRIMROSE
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally from taproot, occasionally rhizomed. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed, generally sessile. Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of distal, reduced leaves. Flower: radial or (sect. Gaura) bilateral, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2--3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or +- purple, generally fading +- orange to +- purple, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, filaments sometimes (sect. Gaura) with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or +- = anthers and self-pollinated). Fruit: generally dehiscent, cylindric to ovoid or obovoid, cylindric to 4-winged or -angled, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like). Seed: in generally 2(1--3) rows per chamber, or clustered or reduced to 1--4 per fruit.
Species In Genus: 145 species: America, some widely naturalized. Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Unabridged Note: Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and +- 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically identical offspring.

Oenothera flava (A. Nelson) Garrett
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb, +- rosetted, green; hairs glandular, also generally minutely strigose; taproot fleshy. Stem: +- 0. Leaf: 3--36 cm, oblanceolate to oblong, irregularly pinnately lobed, +- fleshy. Inflorescence: flowers in axils. Flower: hypanthium 24--80 (150) mm; sepals 10--34 mm, free tips in bud 1--2(5) mm; petals 10--30(38) mm, yellow fading pale orange. Fruit: 10--40 mm, 4--7 mm wide, narrowly ovate to elliptic; wings 2--6 mm wide. Seed: 1.8--2.6 mm, obliquely wedge-shaped, minutely beaded, narrow-winged distally and along 1 margin. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Drying depressions, streambanks, generally clay soils, sagebrush scrub to pinyon/juniper woodland; Elevation: 900--1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaR, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to southern Canada, Colorado, Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Generally self-pollinated.
Synonyms: Oenothera flava subsp. flava
eFlora Treatment Author: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner
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Citation for this treatment: Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner 2016. Oenothera flava, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34999, accessed on February 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 07, 2016.


Oenothera flava
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Oenothera flava
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Oenothera flava
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Oenothera flava
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Oenothera flava
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Oenothera flava
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson

More photos of Oenothera flava in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Oenothera flava:
CaR, n SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.