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Nicandra physalodes
APPLE OF PERU, SHOO-FLY PLANT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NicandraView Description 

Habit: Annual. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: calyx lobes > tube, winged toward base; corolla widely bell-shaped, lobes shallow, tube base with ring of hairs; ovary 3--5-chamberd. Fruit: +- capsule, 1--2 cm, spheric, irregularly dehiscent.
Species In Genus: 2 species: South America, cultivated. Etymology: (Nicander, botanical poet, Asia Minor, +- 100 B.C.)
Unabridged Note: A 3rd sp., evidently not in California, to be described.

Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.
WAIF
Habit: Plant < 2 m. Stem: strong-5-ribbed, hollow. Leaf: 8--30 cm; blade ovate, toothed to lobed. Flower: calyx enlarging, +- enclosing fruit; corolla 15--30 mm, pale blue; filaments 4--5 mm; ovary on orange disk, style 5--7 mm. Seed: many, brown.
Ecology: Fields; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo; Distribution Outside California: native to South America. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep Note: May become naturalized in California, +- because plants so widely naturalized in similar climates elsewhere.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2016. Nicandra physalodes, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34638, accessed on September 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 30, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Nicandra physalodes:
SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.