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Nicandra physalodes
APPLE OF PERU, SHOO-FLY PLANT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NicandraView Description 

Habit: Annual. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: calyx lobes > tube, winged toward base; corolla widely bell-shaped, lobes shallow, tube base with ring of hairs; ovary 3--5-chamberd. Fruit: +- capsule, 1--2 cm, spheric, irregularly dehiscent.
Species In Genus: 2 species: South America, cultivated. Etymology: (Nicander, botanical poet, Asia Minor, +- 100 B.C.)
Unabridged Note: A 3rd sp., evidently not in California, to be described.

Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.
WAIF
Habit: Plant < 2 m. Stem: strong-5-ribbed, hollow. Leaf: 8--30 cm; blade ovate, toothed to lobed. Flower: calyx enlarging, +- enclosing fruit; corolla 15--30 mm, pale blue; filaments 4--5 mm; ovary on orange disk, style 5--7 mm. Seed: many, brown.
Ecology: Fields; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo; Distribution Outside California: native to South America. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep Note: May become naturalized in California, +- because plants so widely naturalized in similar climates elsewhere.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2016. Nicandra physalodes, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34638, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 02, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Nicandra physalodes:
SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.