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Nemacladus sigmoideus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: NemacladusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally +- brown or +- purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: +- raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla +- radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2--12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
Species In Genus: 18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. Etymology: (Greek: thread-like branch) Note: In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged Note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1--134

Nemacladus sigmoideus G.T. Robbins
Habit: Erect, 4--12 cm, branches from base or 1.5--2 cm above. Stem: spreading, base purple-brown. Leaf: 1.5--10 mm, ovate to elliptic, entire or irregularly dentate, short-hairy, sessile. Inflorescence: axis strongly zigzag; bracts 0.8--1.5 mm, ovate; pedicels 10--18 mm, < 0.1 mm diam, spreading, S-curved, tip erect. Flower: inverted; hypanthium 0.5 mm; sepals +- 1.5 mm, lance-deltate, erect, spreading in fruit; corolla 2-lipped or all lobes held on abaxial side, divided 1/3 to base, white, generally yellow at lobe tips, hairy, tube bell-shaped, 2 adaxial lobes divergent, elliptic, 1--1.5 mm, 3 abaxial spreading, 1.5 mm; filaments +- 1.5 mm, erect, exserted, tip curved, appendages continuous with base of filaments, cells narrow, attenuate, anthers +- 0.3 mm; ovary +- 1/2 inferior. Fruit: +- 2 mm, base oblique, tip acute. Seed: +- 0.5 mm, widely elliptic, with zigzag ridges alternate clearly pitted rows.
Ecology: Sandy or gravelly soils, Joshua-tree woodland; Elevation: 50--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: s SN, Teh, TR, e PR, SNE, DMoj, nw DSon; Distribution Outside California: Nevada, Arizona, Baja California. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Plant in SNE with corolla to 3 mm.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin
Reference: Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397--400
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1--134
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botanical illustration including Nemacladus sigmoideus


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Nemacladus sigmoideus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 25, 2018.

Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2016 James Morefield
Nemacladus sigmoideus
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© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Nemacladus sigmoideus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Nemacladus sigmoideus:
s SN, Teh, TR, e PR, SNE, DMoj, nw DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.