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Vascular Plants of California
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Myriophyllum quitense
ANDEAN WATER-MILFOIL


Higher Taxonomy
Family: HaloragaceaeView Description 
Common Name: WATER-MILFOIL FAMILY
Habit: [Annual, shrub] perennial herb, generally aquatic or semiterrestrial, dioecious or monoecious. Leaf: cauline, opposite, alternate or whorled; submersed blades pinnately divided, segments thread-like; emergent leaves simple, entire to divided. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or panicle; flowers 1 or clustered, short-pedicelled to +- sessile. Flower: generally unisexual, small; calyx tube short, fused to ovary, lobes 2--4; petals generally 2--4; stamens 4 or 8, filaments generally short; ovary inferior, chambers 1--4, styles 2--4, separate, stigmas generally plumose. Fruit: fleshy or of nut-like mericarps, dehiscent or not. Seed: generally 1 per chamber.
Genera In Family: 6--8 genera, +- 100 species: especially southern hemisphere, some cultivated. Note: Haloragis erecta (Murray) Eichler not naturalized in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Adolf Ceska & Oldriska Ceska
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MyriophyllumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: WATER-MILFOIL
Habit: Plant from rhizomes, occasionally with overwintering buds (late in growing season); occasionally terrestrial. Stem: simple or branched, generally green. Leaf: submersed leaves generally whorled, 3--6 per node; emergent leaves entire to pinnately divided, occasionally bract-like. Inflorescence: generally emergent, spike-like, simple or branched, terminal, flowers in whorls. Flower: proximal pistillate, middle occasionally bisexual, distal staminate; calyx lobes 4; petals generally 4, ephemeral on staminate flowers, minute or 0 on pistillate flowers; stamens generally 8; ovary 4-chambered. Fruit: mericarps 4, nut-like.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: many leaves, from leaf segments) Note: Myriophyllum specimens best collected in flower or fruit.
Unabridged Note: Plants should be washed first and then "floated" on the herbarium mounting paper in a shallow dish with water [see Ceska & Ceska 1987 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 73:825--827].
Reference: Ceska et al. 1986 Brittonia 38:73--81
Myriophyllum quitense Kunth
NATIVE
Habit: Monoecious; winter buds 0. Stem: > 1 m, dark gray when dry; from strong +- white rhizomes. Leaf: in whorls of 4--5, 1--2.5 cm, comb-like, with 8--20 thread-like segments; lowermost stem leaves on young shoots bract-like, entire, opposite. Inflorescence: simple to conspicuously branched spike, 4--8 cm, emergent; bracts 4--10 mm, triangular, minutely serrate. Flower: stamens 8.
Ecology: Uncommon. In streams, thermal creeks, shallow water along lakeshores with strong wave action; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, n SNH, e SnBr; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Wyoming, Utah, Arizona, Mexico, South America. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep
Unabridged Synonyms: Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich.
Unabridged Note: Ash-like sheen on stem, leaves of dried herbarium specimens; be aware of its special habitats. In young shoots look for lowermost opposite, bract-like stem leaves.
Jepson eFlora Author: Adolf Ceska & Oldriska Ceska
Reference: Ceska et al. 1986 Brittonia 38:73--81
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Citation for this treatment: Adolf Ceska & Oldriska Ceska 2012, Myriophyllum quitense, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=34271, accessed on November 13, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 13, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Myriophyllum quitense.



Geographic subdivisions for Myriophyllum quitense:
CaRH, n SNH, e SnBr
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.