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Muehlenbeckia complexa
MAIDENHAIR VINE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MuehlenbeckiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Shrub, vine-like, climbing or, if support 0, forming dense, sprawling, twisted masses, rhizomed. Stem: to 10 m, slender, wiry, branches many. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled, +- deciduous; ocreae delicate, early-deciduous; blade linear to round or lance-triangular, +- thick, margins entire or irregularly wavy. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, raceme- or spike-like; flowers 1--3(5); peduncles +- 0. Flower: bisexual, staminate, or pistillate (all three on 1 plant or not); perianth parts 5, fused 1/4--1/2, enlarging, fleshy in fruit, white to green-white to -yellow; stamens 8; style rudimentary, stigmas 3, much-branched. Fruit: +- included in fleshy perianth, appearing berry-like; 3-angled to +- spheric, smooth.
Species In Genus: 23 species: South America, Central America, New Zealand, Australia. Etymology: (H.G. Muehlenbeck, Alsatian physician, 1798--1845)

Muehlenbeckia complexa (A. Cunn.) Meisn.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Shrub, straggling or climbing, in dense tangles. Stem: <= 5 m, wiry, +- twisted, dark-brown or +- red; distal branches +- brown-puberulent. Leaf: blade 0.5--2(4) cm, 0.5--2(4) cm wide, entire, +- glabrous, leathery, tip rounded to mucronate. Flower: 2--5 mm; perianth parts fused +- 1/2, yellow-green or +- green. Fruit: included or exserted, 3--4 mm, 3-angled, brown-black, shiny, smooth. Chromosomes: 2n=20.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, coastal bluffs, sandy and rocky places; Elevation: < 500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo; Distribution Outside California: native to New Zealand. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep Note: Cult as ornamental.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea 2016. Muehlenbeckia complexa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=34052, accessed on February 13, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 13, 2016.


Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer
Muehlenbeckia complexa
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Muehlenbeckia complexa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Muehlenbeckia complexa:
NCo, CCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.