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    Vascular Plants of California
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Monochoria vaginalis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PontederiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, submersed, emergent, floating, or on wet ground. Leaf: simple, alternate or whorled, +- in basal rosette or not; blade linear (especially underwater) to round, sometimes sagittate or cordate, base generally sheathing, veins parallel; petiole inflated or not. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, panicle, or 1-flowered, terminal but often appearing +- axillary, subtended by sheathing bract. Flower: bisexual, radial or +- bilateral; perianth lobes 6 (in 2 series) [3,4], petal-like; stamens 3, 6 (in 2 series) [1,4], from various levels on perianth tube, equal or not, sometimes 3 sterile, modified; ovary superior, 1 or 3-chambered. Fruit: many-seeded, loculicidal capsule [1-seeded utricle]. Seed: < 1 cm, longitudinally ribbed [or not].
Genera In Family: +- 6 genera, 30 species: most pantropical, some temperate. Note: Some cultivated as orns, some weeds, especially in rice fields. Pontederia cordata L. establishes from garden waste.
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MonochoriaView Description 

Habit: Annual [perennial herb], generally emergent. Stem: +- erect, stout [elongate]. Leaf: in basal rosettes; blade ovate to narrowly lanceolate; petiole not inflated, generally > blade. Inflorescence: raceme, reflexed after flower. Flower: +- radial; perianth bell-shaped to rotate, tube < 1 cm, parts 6, nearly free; stamens 6, 1 generally > others; ovary 3-chambered.
Species In Genus: 6 species: tropical Africa, Asia, northeastern Australia. Etymology: (Greek: 1 apart, from 1 stamen > others)

Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) Kunth
Stem: > 12 cm. Leaf: blade 2.5--11 cm; petiole 4--70 cm. Inflorescence: > 5 cm, few-flowered. Flower: generally opening under water; perianth blue, parts < 2 cm.
Ecology: Uncommon. Rice fields; Elevation: > 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: ScV; Distribution Outside California: native to tropical Australia, Asia. Flowering Time: Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock
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Citation for this treatment: Charles N. Horn & Elizabeth McClintock 2012, Monochoria vaginalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 17, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 17, 2018.

Geographic subdivisions for Monochoria vaginalis:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.