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Mirabilis coccinea
RED FOUR O'CLOCK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.

Mirabilis coccinea (Torr.) Benth. & Hook. f.
NATIVE
Stem: ascending to erect, < 6 dm, glabrous, glaucous. Leaf: +- sessile; blade 2--12 cm, linear, fleshy, glabrous. Inflorescence: involucre 1 per upper axil, peduncled, bell-shaped, short-hairy, 1--3-flowered, enlarged, 5--8 mm, papery in fruit; bracts 5, +- 1/2 fused. Flower: perianth 15--20 mm, +- funnel-shaped, bright red. Fruit: +- 5 mm, club-shaped; ribs 5, coarsely wrinkled between; hairs fine.
Ecology: Dry, rocky slopes, washes; Elevation: 1300--1800 m. Bioregional Distribution: DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to western New Mexico, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Easily confused with Mirabilis linearis var. linearis without mature flowers.
Synonyms: Oxybaphus coccineus Torr.
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Mirabilis alipes
Next taxon: Mirabilis greenei

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Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2016. Mirabilis coccinea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=33792, accessed on May 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 30, 2016.


Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2005 James M. Andre
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2005 James M. Andre
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2005 James M. Andre

More photos of Mirabilis coccinea in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis coccinea:
DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.