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Vascular Plants of California
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Mirabilis coccinea
RED FOUR O'CLOCK


Higher Taxonomy
Family: NyctaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally +- radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3--5, generally notched to +- lobed; stamens 1--many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to +- flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
Genera In Family: 30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock).
eFlora Treatment Author: Andy Murdock, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MirabilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: FOUR O'CLOCK
Habit: Perennial herb, subshrub. Stem: repeatedly forked, decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally petioled. Inflorescence: branches ending in umbel-like cluster or solitary flowers; bracts 5(9), +- fused (or not) into calyx-like, bell- to saucer-shaped involucre; flowers in 1 involucre 1--16, generally not blooming together; flowers cleistogamous or not. Flower: radial or +- bilateral; perianth funnel- to bell-shaped, lobes 5; stamens 3--5, generally exserted; stigma +- spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: +- round to club-shaped; ribs or angles 0, 5, 10; wings 0.
Species In Genus: +- 60 species: America, Himalayas. Etymology: (Latin: wonderful) Note: Flowers open in evening, close in morning; species intergrade, taxonomy unsettled.
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
Mirabilis coccinea (Torr.) Benth. & Hook. f.
NATIVE
Stem: ascending to erect, < 6 dm, glabrous, glaucous. Leaf: +- sessile; blade 2--12 cm, linear, fleshy, glabrous. Inflorescence: involucre 1 per upper axil, peduncled, bell-shaped, short-hairy, 1--3-flowered, enlarged, 5--8 mm, papery in fruit; bracts 5, +- 1/2 fused. Flower: perianth 15--20 mm, +- funnel-shaped, bright red. Fruit: +- 5 mm, club-shaped; ribs 5, coarsely wrinkled between; hairs fine.
Ecology: Dry, rocky slopes, washes; Elevation: 1300--1800 m. Bioregional Distribution: DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to western New Mexico, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Easily confused with Mirabilis linearis var. linearis without mature flowers.
Synonyms: Oxybaphus coccineus Torr.
Jepson eFlora Author: Andy Murdock
Reference: Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:40--57
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Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: Andy Murdock 2012, Mirabilis coccinea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=33792, accessed on December 06, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 06, 2019.

Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2005 James M. Andre
Mirabilis coccinea
click for enlargement
© 2014 Aaron Schusteff

More photos of Mirabilis coccinea in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Mirabilis coccinea:
DMtns
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.