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Mentha canadensis
AMERICAN CORNMINT, JAPANESE PEPPERMINT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LamiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MINT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1--2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, +- flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). Note: Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MenthaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: APPLE MINT
Habit: Perennial herb from rhizomes. Stem: 3--10 dm, generally canescent. Leaf: 2--6(8) cm; petiole 0--2 mm; blade ovate (oblong), base tapered, tip acute, generally serrate. Inflorescence: spike-like, bracts subtending flower clusters ovate to lance-linear. Flower: calyx 1.5--2.5 mm, generally canescent; corolla 3--4 mm, white to pink or violet; stamens generally included. Chromosomes: 2n=36.
Note: Hybrid between Mentha suaveolens and Mentha spicata. Very difficult to distinguish from Mentha ×rotundifolia.

Mentha canadensis L.
NATIVE
Stem: 1--5(8) dm, puberulent to short-hairy. Leaf: 1.5--5(8) cm; reduced distally on stem; petiole 5--25 mm; blade linear to lanceolate, crenate to serrate, base tapered, tip generally acute, lower surface, especially veins, short-hairy. Inflorescence: axillary, subtending leaves spreading; bracts minute or 0. Flower: calyx 1.5--3 mm, short-hairy outside; corolla 4--7 mm, white to pink or violet. Chromosomes: 2n=96.
Ecology: Moist areas, streambanks, lakeshores, fields; Elevation: < 2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SNF, SNH, GV, CW, SCo, TR, PR, MP, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: eastern Asia. Flowering Time: Jul--Oct
Synonyms: Mentha arvensis var. canadensis (L.) Kuntze; Mentha arvensis var. villosa (Benth.) S.R. Stewart.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera
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Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera Mentha canadensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=33195, accessed on November 24, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 24, 2017.


Mentha canadensis
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Mentha canadensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Mentha canadensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Mentha canadensis
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© 2012 Vernon Smith
Mentha canadensis
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Mentha canadensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Mentha canadensis:
NW, CaR, SNF, SNH, GV, CW, SCo, TR, PR, MP, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.