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Mentha canadensis
AMERICAN CORNMINT, JAPANESE PEPPERMINT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MINT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1--2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, +- flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). Note: Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MenthaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MINT
Habit: Perennial herb from rhizomes, glabrous to hairy. Stem: generally ascending to erect, generally branched. Leaf: petioled to sessile; blade elliptic to ovate or lanceolate, toothed to lobed. Inflorescence: head-like in leaf axils or collectively spike- or panicle-like and subtended by bracts. Flower: calyx +- radial, generally 10-veined, lobes 4--5, equal or not; corolla +- 2-lipped, lips generally equal, upper lip notched, lower lip 3-lobed; stamens 4, +- equal, generally exserted, filaments glabrous, anthers segments parallel, distinct. Fruit: nutlets +- ellipsoid, tip rounded.
Species In Genus: 18 species: temperate. North America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for mint) Note: Cult for oils, flavoring, herbs. Hybrids in California generally sterile, spreading from rhizomes.
Unabridged Note: Many cultivated and naturalized populations derived from hybridization, generally polyploid, some sterile, reproducing vegetatively.
eFlora Treatment Author: Arthur O. Tucker

Mentha canadensis L.
NATIVE
Stem: 1--5(8) dm, puberulent to short-hairy. Leaf: 1.5--5(8) cm; reduced distally on stem; petiole 5--25 mm; blade linear to lanceolate, crenate to serrate, base tapered, tip generally acute, lower surface, especially veins, short-hairy. Inflorescence: axillary, subtending leaves spreading; bracts minute or 0. Flower: calyx 1.5--3 mm, short-hairy outside; corolla 4--7 mm, white to pink or violet. Chromosomes: 2n=96.
Ecology: Moist areas, streambanks, lakeshores, fields; Elevation: < 2400 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SNF, SNH, GV, CW, SCo, TR, PR, MP, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: eastern Asia. Flowering Time: Jul--Oct
Synonyms: Mentha arvensis var. canadensis (L.) Kuntze; Mentha arvensis var. villosa (Benth.) S.R. Stewart.
eFlora Treatment Author: Arthur O. Tucker
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Citation for this treatment: Arthur O. Tucker 2016. Mentha canadensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=33195, accessed on December 09, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 09, 2016.


Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Mentha canadensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse

More photos of Mentha canadensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Mentha canadensis:
NW, CaR, SNF, SNH, GV, CW, SCo, TR, PR, MP, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.