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Vascular Plants of California
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Matthiola incana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MatthiolaView Description 

Common Name: STOCK
Habit: [Annual] biennial, perennial herb [occasionally subshrub], generally +- gray; hairs dense, many-branched (simple or forked); stalked multicellular glands present or 0. Leaf: entire or dentate to pinnately lobed; cauline petioled or sessile, base not lobed. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: sepals erect, inner pair sac-like at base; petals long-clawed. Fruit: silique, linear, cylindric or flat parallel to septum, dehiscent, unsegmented; stigma conical, 2-lobed, with 2--3 horns. Seed: (5)15--60, in 1 row, winged [or not].
Species In Genus: 50 species: Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (P.A. Matthioli, Italian botanist, 1500--1577) Note: Other species cultivated, including Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Matthiola incana (L.) W.T. Aiton
Stem: (1)2.5--6(9) dm, occasionally woody at base. Leaf: linear to oblong or oblanceolate, entire to wavy-margined, proximal, middle (2.5)4--16(22) cm, (0.5)0.8--1.8(2.5) cm wide. Flower: fragrant; sepals 1--1.5 cm; petals 2--3 cm, 0.7--1.5 cm wide, obovate to ovate, purple, violet, pink, or white, claw 1--1.7 cm. Fruit: (4)6--12(15) cm, (3)4--6 mm wide, flat parallel to septum, +- constricted between seeds; style 1--5 mm; pedicel ascending, (0.6)1--2(2.5) cm. Seed: 2.5--3.3 mm, +- round; wing 0.2--0.5 mm wide. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Sandy areas, beaches, ocean bluffs; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCo, CCo, SCo; Distribution Outside California: Mexico; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun Note: Cult worldwide as ornamental.
Jepson eFlora Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2012, Matthiola incana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Matthiola incana
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse

More photos of Matthiola incana in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Matthiola incana:
s NCo, CCo, SCo
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).


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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.