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Mammillaria dioica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CactaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to +- cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0--few.
Genera In Family: +- 125 genera, +- 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. Note: Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha.
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: MammillariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Generally erect (decumbent or prostrate), branched or not, branches 0--9(50). Stem: 5--30 cm, [1.8]3--7.5[20] cm diam, spheric to cylindric [or obconic], firm to soft, not regularly segmented; ribs 0, tubercles prominent, conic to cylindric, not grooved. Spines: [2]14--64(90) per areole, < 2 mm diam, needle-like [to hair-like or bristle-like], glabrous [or plumose], straight or hooked [or curved to crinkly]; central spines 1--4 [0--many] per areole, generally hooked. Flower: lateral, in axils of tubercles, 1--5 [7.5] cm diam; perianth cream to white, pink, purple, or lavender; ovary glabrous, spines 0, scales 0. Fruit: club-shaped or cylindric to ovoid [or barrel-shaped], indehiscent, generally red, spines 0. Seed: 0.8--1.5 mm, generally shiny, generally pitted or raised-netted, black [brown to +- red or +- yellow], occasionally with aril.
Species In Genus: 150 species: North America. Etymology: (Latin: nipple)

Mammillaria dioica K. Brandegee
Habit: Plant with flowers generally either all bisexual or all pistillate. Stem: generally 1(many), 5--30 cm, 3--7 cm diam, spheric to long-cylindric, firm; tubercle axils bristly. Spines: central spines 1--4 per areole, 8--15 mm, 1 hooked; radial spines 11--22, 4--10 mm. Flower: 10--22 mm, 20--40 mm diam; outer perianth parts entire to minutely fringed; inner perianth parts 8--12. Fruit: 10--25 mm, in age ovoid to club-shaped. Seed: aril 0. Chromosomes: 2n=[44]66.
Ecology: Hillsides, washes, coastal scrub to creosote-bush scrub; Elevation: 10--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, w edge DSon; Distribution Outside California: Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--Apr
Synonyms: Mammillaria dioica var. incerta (Parish) Munz
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce D. Parfitt
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botanical illustration including Mammillaria dioica


Citation for this treatment: Bruce D. Parfitt 2016. Mammillaria dioica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 02, 2016.

Mammillaria dioica
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© 2015 Barry Rice
Mammillaria dioica
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© 2015 Barry Rice
Mammillaria dioica
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© 1998 Christopher L. Christie
Mammillaria dioica
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© 2014 Barry Rice
Mammillaria dioica
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© 2012 Keir Morse
Mammillaria dioica
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© 2012 Keir Morse

More photos of Mammillaria dioica in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Mammillaria dioica:
SCo, w edge DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.