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Lythrum tribracteatum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LythraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: 4-angled or cylindric. Leaf: simple, entire, generally opposite, 4-ranked (alternate, whorled). Inflorescence: flowers terminal or in axils of upper leaves or leaf-like bracts, 1 or in +- dense cymes or along short shoots, sessile or not, subtended by [0]2 bractlets. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, membranous or leathery, persistent in fruit; sepals appearing as hypanthium lobes, 4--9, epicalyx lobes alternate sepals or 0; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4--6 or 0, alternate sepals, crinkled, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 × sepals, included or exserted; ovary generally superior, chambers 2--6[many], style generally slender, stigma head-like. Fruit: dry capsule or leathery berry, dehiscent into 2--4 valves or irregularly. Seed: 3--many.
Genera In Family: +- 28 genera, 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes. Note: "Epicalyx lobes" (lobes on calyx) formerly called "appendages," "hypanthium" in Lythraceae (and Onagraceae) including receptacle, sometimes called "flower cup" or "flower tube". Punicaceae (Punica) included here.
eFlora Treatment Author: Shirley A. Graham
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: LythrumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to erect, often 4-angled. Leaf: opposite, alternate, or whorled, linear to ovate or obovate, petiole 0 to short. Inflorescence: flowers generally 1--2 per axil, sessile or not. Flower: radial to +- bilateral, of 1--3 style forms (heterostylous); hypanthium cylindric or bell-shaped, ribs generally conspicuous; sepals 4--6, deltate, epicalyx lobes < to > sepals; petals 4--6 or 0; stamens 4--6 or 12, included or exserted; styles < to > stamens. Fruit: capsule, generally cylindric, rarely spheric, valves 2. Seed: many, < 1 mm.
Species In Genus: +- 35 species: temperate. Etymology: (Greek: clotted blood, from use of Lythrum salicaria, the first named sp., to stop hemorrhaging, according to Gerard, Bull Torrey Bot Club 12: 60. 1885)
Reference: Houghton-Thompson et al. 2005 Ann Bot (London) 96:877--885

Lythrum tribracteatum Spreng.
Habit: Annual, not heterostylous. Stem: 5--30 cm, glabrous to +- scabrous; branches often at base, decumbent to weakly ascending or erect. Leaf: 0.3--2.5 cm, lower opposite; upper alternate, oblong to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per axil on main shoots and on short axillary shoots, +- sessile; +- glandular. Flower: hypanthium 5--6 mm, narrowly cylindric, 8--10 × longer than wide; sepals, epicalyx lobes +- 0.5 mm, thick; petals < 3 mm, lavender; stamens 4--6, included; style included. Fruit: cylindric, +- = hypanthium. Chromosomes: n=5.
Ecology: Wet areas, drying ponds; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRI, GV, CCo, SnFrB, n MP; Distribution Outside California: native to southern Europe. Flowering Time: May--Jun
eFlora Treatment Author: Shirley A. Graham
Reference: Houghton-Thompson et al. 2005 Ann Bot (London) 96:877--885
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botanical illustration including Lythrum tribracteatum


Citation for this treatment: Shirley A. Graham 2012, Lythrum tribracteatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 16, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 16, 2018.

Lythrum tribracteatum
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© 2014 Vernon Smith
Lythrum tribracteatum
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© 2009 Vernon Smith
Lythrum tribracteatum
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© 2001 Tony Morosco
Lythrum tribracteatum
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© 2014 Vernon Smith
Lythrum tribracteatum
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© 2018 Neal Kramer

More photos of Lythrum tribracteatum in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Lythrum tribracteatum:
NCoRI, GV, CCo, SnFrB, n MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.