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Lupinus arboreus
YELLOW BUSH LUPINE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LEGUME FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: LupinusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LUPINE
Habit: Annual to shrub; cotyledons generally petioled, withering early. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: palmately compound [or not], generally cauline; stipules fused to petiole; leaflets 3--17, generally oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: raceme, flowers spiraled or whorled, occasionally also in lower leaf axils; bracts generally deciduous. Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lobes entire or toothed, generally appendaged between; corolla blue, purple, white, or yellow, banner glabrous to densely hairy, centrally grooved, sides reflexed, wing tips +- fused, keel generally beaked; stamens 10, filaments fused, 5 long with short anthers, 5 short with long anthers; style brush-like. Fruit: dehiscent, generally oblong. Seed: 2--12, generally smooth.
Species In Genus: +- 220 species: especially western North America, western South America to eastern United States, also tropical South America, Mediterranean to western Asia, eastern tropical Africa; some cultivated for fodder, green manure, edible seed, ornamental. Etymology: (Latin: wolf, from mistaken idea that plants rob soil of nutrients) Toxicity: Some (e.g., Lupinus arboreus, Lupinus latifolius, Lupinus leucophyllus) have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) TOXIC to livestock (especially sheep). Note: Inflorescence length excludes peduncle; some California species naturalized in eastern North America, South America, Australia, southern Africa.
eFlora Treatment Author: Teresa Sholars

Lupinus arboreus Sims
NATIVE
Habit: Shrub < 20 dm, green-glabrous to silver-hairy. Stem: erect. Leaf: cauline; stipules 8--12 mm; petiole 2--3(6) cm; leaflets 5--12, 20--60 mm. Inflorescence: 10--30 cm, flowers whorled or not; peduncle 4--10 cm; pedicels 4--10 mm; bract 8--10 mm. Flower: 14--18 mm; calyx upper lip 5--9 mm, 2-toothed, lower 5--7 mm, entire; petals generally yellow (lilac to purple, especially north of central NCo), banner back glabrous, spot darker or not to white, keel upper margins ciliate claw to tip, lower glabrous. Fruit: 4--7 cm, brown to black, hairy. Seed: 8--12, 4--5 mm, black to tan, often striped lighter.
Ecology: Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, ChI (probably naturalized n of Sonoma Co.). Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Grades +- into Lupinus rivularis in NCo. Plants with yellow petals, sweet-smelling flowers widely cultivated as sand binder. If recognized taxonomically, hairier plants from western SnFrB (yellow banner, blue wings) assignable to Lupinus arboreus var. eximius (Burtt Davy) C.P. Sm.; plants with glabrous leaflets, purple petals assignable to Lupinus propinquus Greene (study needed).
Unabridged Note: If recognized taxonomically, hairier plants from western SnFrB (yellow banner, blue wings) assignable to Lupinus arboreus var. eximius (Burtt Davy) C.P. Sm., plants with glabrous leaflets, purple petals assignable to Lupinus propinquus Greene; study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Teresa Sholars
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Citation for this treatment: Teresa Sholars 2016. Lupinus arboreus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31731, accessed on December 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 07, 2016.


Lupinus arboreus
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Lupinus arboreus
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Lupinus arboreus
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Lupinus arboreus
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© 2010 Neal Kramer
Lupinus arboreus
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© 2014 Steve Matson
Lupinus arboreus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Lupinus arboreus in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Lupinus arboreus:
NCo, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, ChI (probably naturalized n of Sonoma Co.).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.