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Lithospermum ruderale
WESTERN STONESEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: LithospermumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: STONESEED
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted, red root dye present or not. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally cauline, +- sessile, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cyme or flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; bracts throughout. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit, lobes equal; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally +- yellow (+- white), tube > lobes, appendages present or 0; style entire. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, 2.5--6+ mm, ovoid, plump, smooth to pitted or wrinkled, attachment scar basal.
Species In Genus: 75 species: worldwide, generally temperate, mountains. Etymology: (Greek: stone seed) Note: Heterostylous or not; cleistogamous flowers present or 0.

Lithospermum ruderale Lehm.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb; hairs +- spreading; caudex +- woody; red root dye 0. Stem: 1--several, 2--5 dm, clustered, +- unbranched. Leaf: many, crowded; blade 3--8 cm, lanceolate to linear. Inflorescence: cymes many, dense, in upper leaf axils; pedicels 1--3 mm, +- erect in fruit. Flower: corolla 9--12 mm, 1--1.5 × calyx, 7--13 mm diam, +- salverform, pale- to green-yellow, lobes entire, appendages 0. Fruit: nutlet 5--6+ mm, wide-ovoid, +- attenuate into stout tip, smooth, shiny, +- white to pale brown. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Open, dry slopes, plains, sagebrush steppe, conifer forest, chaparral; Elevation: (750)1200--1800 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: northwestern North America. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Homostylous; cleistogamous flowers 0.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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botanical illustration including Lithospermum ruderale

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Lithospermum ruderale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31272, accessed on September 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 25, 2016.


Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2002 Larry Blakely
Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2002 Larry Blakely
Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Lithospermum ruderale
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Lithospermum ruderale in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Lithospermum ruderale:
CaRH, n SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.