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Lithospermum arvense
GROMWELL

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: LithospermumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: STONESEED
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted, red root dye present or not. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally cauline, +- sessile, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cyme or flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; bracts throughout. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit, lobes equal; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally +- yellow (+- white), tube > lobes, appendages present or 0; style entire. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, 2.5--6+ mm, ovoid, plump, smooth to pitted or wrinkled, attachment scar basal.
Species In Genus: 75 species: worldwide, generally temperate, mountains. Etymology: (Greek: stone seed) Note: Heterostylous or not; cleistogamous flowers present or 0.

Lithospermum arvense L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, strigose; caudex 0; red root dye +- 0. Stem: 1--few, 1--7 dm, +- not clustered, branched at base. Leaf: +- few; blade 2--6 cm, +- linear to lanceolate or oblong. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; pedicels 1 mm, erect in fruit. Flower: corolla 5--8 mm, +- = calyx, 2--4 mm diam, funnel-shaped, +- white (blue-white), appendages 0, tube with 5 vertical bands of hairs. Fruit: nutlet 2.5--3 mm, narrow-ovoid, wrinkled, +- tubercled, +- dull, +- brown, late-dehiscent. Chromosomes: 2n=14,28,42.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, open meadows; Elevation: 100--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: n SNH, SnFrB (extirpated), MP; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, eastern North America; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun Note: Homostylous; cleistogamous flowers 0.
Synonyms: Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Lithospermum arvense, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31252, accessed on February 13, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 13, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Lithospermum arvense:
n SNH, SnFrB (extirpated), MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.