Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Lithophragma maximum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SaxifragaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally +- hairy. Stem: often +- leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins +- palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally +- scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to +- fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels +- fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
Genera In Family: +- 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). Note: California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: LithophragmaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets. Leaf: basal and cauline, reduced distally on stem, generally alternate, increasingly more deeply lobed from younger basal to distal cauline; blade round, base cordate to reniform, +- lobed, generally toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0. Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to +- inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, 3-beaked, valves 3.
Species In Genus: 12 species: western North America. Etymology: (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats)
Unabridged Note: Generic names ending in -phragma are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.

Lithophragma maximum Bacig.
Habit: Plant 40--60 cm. Leaf: basal blade 3-parted, leaflets lobed, teeth sharp. Inflorescence: flowers 6--25; pedicel +- 1 mm. Flower: hypanthium hemispheric to bell-shaped, part fused to ovary generally < free part; petals 3.5--4.5 mm, ovate, +- 5-lobed, white; ovary < 1/2 inferior. Seed: spiny.
Ecology: Steep, moist, n-facing canyon slopes; Elevation: < 400 m. Bioregional Distribution: s ChI (San Clemente Island). Flowering Time: Mar--May
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Lithophragma heterophyllum
Next taxon: Lithophragma parviflorum

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Citation for this treatment: Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander 2016. Lithophragma maximum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Lithophragma maximum:
s ChI (San Clemente Island).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.