Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Listera cordata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ListeraView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: TWAYBLADE
Habit: Rhizomes slender. Leaf: cauline, 2, +- opposite, generally ovate to +- round. Inflorescence: raceme, +- open; flower bract < flower. Flower: sepals +- equal, green to +- purple, lower spreading; lateral petals +- like sepals, ascending to erect; lip generally > sepals, petals, spreading to descending, generally wedge-shaped, flat, tip entire to deeply lobed; column subcylindric, straight to curved, anther at tip. Fruit: generally spreading.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: temperate, arctic North America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Martin Lister, English naturalist, 1638--1711) Note: Names available in Neottia (earlier name), with same epithets, for all California taxa if Listera treated as congeneric with that genus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings

Listera cordata (L.) R. Br.
Habit: Plant 6--25 cm. Leaf: blade 1--4 cm, base cordate. Inflorescence: 2.5--4 cm. Flower: sepals 2--4 mm, oblong to narrowly elliptic; lip 8--10 mm, oblong below middle, with 2 short teeth at base, deeply 2-lobed; column 0.5--1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=36,38,40,42.
Ecology: Moist, shady conifer forests; Elevation: 100--1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern North America, Eurasia. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun
Synonyms: Listera cordata var. cordata; Listera cordata var. nephrophylla (Rydb.) Hultén; Listera nephrophylla Rydb.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Listera convallarioides
Next taxon: Malaxis

Name Search
botanical illustration including Listera cordata


Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, L.K. Magrath, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2016. Listera cordata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Listera cordata
click for enlargement
© 2000 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Listera cordata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Listera cordata:
NCo, KR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.