Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Linaria vulgaris
BUTTER-AND-EGGS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PLANTAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: LinariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: TOADFLAX
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: erect, simple or branched at base. Leaf: generally opposite or whorled (or distal alternate), sessile, linear to ovate, generally wider on non-flowering shoots, entire to dentate, pinnately veined. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate. Flower: sepals 5, free to near base, lobes +- equal; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower lip >= upper, lower side of tube spurred at base, lower side of throat swollen, +- hairy, +- closing corolla below lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, lobes 0 or 2, flat. Fruit: opening by slits into chambers near tip, +- spheric. Seed: many, flat and winged or pyramid-shaped and 0--3-ridged.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: Europe, Asia, northern Africa; many cultivated. Etymology: (Latin: flax, from flax-like leaves of some) Note: Corolla length includes spur. Linaria supina (L.) Chaz. mistakenly reported for California in TJM (1993). Linaria canadensis moved to Nuttallanthus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax

Linaria vulgaris Mill.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 30--100 cm, ascending to erect, simple or not. Leaf: crowded, 25--50 mm, +- linear, glabrous to sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy. Inflorescence: raceme, dense, +- glandular-hairy; pedicel 1--4 mm. Flower: calyx lobes +- 3 mm, unequal; corolla 18--32 mm, yellow, lower lip orange-hairy; stigma lobes 0. Fruit: 9--12 mm. Seed: 1.5 mm, flat, winged. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 2150 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR, NCoRO, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, MP; Distribution Outside California: widely naturalized; native to Mediterranean. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax
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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Linaria vulgaris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31093, accessed on July 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 27, 2016.


Linaria vulgaris
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2009 California Academy of Sciences
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Linaria vulgaris in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Linaria vulgaris:
NCo, KR, NCoRO, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.