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Linaria vulgaris
BUTTER-AND-EGGS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PLANTAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: LinariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: TOADFLAX
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: erect, simple or branched at base. Leaf: generally opposite or whorled (or distal alternate), sessile, linear to ovate, generally wider on non-flowering shoots, entire to dentate, pinnately veined. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate. Flower: sepals 5, free to near base, lobes +- equal; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower lip >= upper, lower side of tube spurred at base, lower side of throat swollen, +- hairy, +- closing corolla below lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, lobes 0 or 2, flat. Fruit: opening by slits into chambers near tip, +- spheric. Seed: many, flat and winged or pyramid-shaped and 0--3-ridged.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: Europe, Asia, northern Africa; many cultivated. Etymology: (Latin: flax, from flax-like leaves of some) Note: Corolla length includes spur. Linaria supina (L.) Chaz. mistakenly reported for California in TJM (1993). Linaria canadensis moved to Nuttallanthus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax

Linaria vulgaris Mill.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 30--100 cm, ascending to erect, simple or not. Leaf: crowded, 25--50 mm, +- linear, glabrous to sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy. Inflorescence: raceme, dense, +- glandular-hairy; pedicel 1--4 mm. Flower: calyx lobes +- 3 mm, unequal; corolla 18--32 mm, yellow, lower lip orange-hairy; stigma lobes 0. Fruit: 9--12 mm. Seed: 1.5 mm, flat, winged. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 2150 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR, NCoRO, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, MP; Distribution Outside California: widely naturalized; native to Mediterranean. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax
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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Linaria vulgaris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=31093, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
click for enlargement
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Linaria vulgaris in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Linaria vulgaris:
NCo, KR, NCoRO, CaRH, n SN, ScV, CW (exc SCoRI), SCo, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.