Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Ilex aquifolium

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AquifoliaceaeView Description 

Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen [deciduous]; dioecious or +- so. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, often spiny, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally axillary. Flower: generally unisexual, radial; sepals generally 4, generally fused at base; petals 4, fused at base [free], white [green]; stamens generally 4, generally alternate petals; ovary superior, chambers often 4, generally 1-ovuled, style 0 or terminal, short, stigma head-like or lobed. Fruit: drupe, generally red [purple to black or yellow to +- white]; stones generally 4.
Genera In Family: 4 genera, 300--400 species: tropics, temperate.
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: IlexView Description 

Common Name: HOLLY
Leaf: petioled; adaxially generally shiny. Flower: sepals persistent in fruit; petals oblong or obovate. Fruit: pulpy.
Species In Genus: 300--400 species: especially tropics. Etymology: (Latin: name for Medit holly-oak, Quercus ilex L.) Note: Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton occasionally persisting from cultivation.

Ilex aquifolium L.
Habit: Shrub, tree, < 20 m. Stem: erect; branches many, branchlets minutely hairy. Leaf: 2.5--6 cm, ovate or oblong-ovate, entire to lobed, even on 1 pl, teeth 0 or widely spaced, stiff, spine-like. Flower: petals 2--3 mm, dull white. Fruit: 7--8 mm wide, smooth.
Ecology: Cool, wooded areas; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR?, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, expected elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: native to Europe, western Asia. Flowering Time: May--Jun Note: Cult since ancient time for showy fruit.
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock
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Citation for this treatment: Elizabeth McClintock 2016. Ilex aquifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Ilex aquifolium:
NCo, KR?, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, expected elsewhere;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.