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Hordeum vulgare
BARLEY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HordeumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BARLEY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, cespitose, occasionally from short rhizomes. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally abruptly bent at base; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; ligules translucent; auricles present or 0; blade flat or +- rolled. Inflorescence: spike-like, dense; axis breaking apart at nodes at maturity (except in Hordeum vulgare); spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, 3 per node (central + 2 lateral). Central Spikelet: bisexual, generally sessile; with 1 stalked or sessile floret; glumes awn-like, generally > floret; lemma awned.Lateral Spikelet: sterile or staminate (bisexual in Hordeum vulgare), generally short-stalked; floret 1, sessile; glumes awn-like, > floret, lemma generally awned.
Species In Genus: 32 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for barley) Note: As treated here, including Critesion. Hybridizes with Elymus to produce ×Elyhordeum species. Source of edible grains, sugar, ornamental, and weeds; enzymes from sprouts used in beer-making. Lemma or floret measurements do not include awns. Hordeum pusillum Nutt. has been reported for Ventura and San Diego cos., but it does not appear to be naturalized.

Hordeum vulgare L.
WAIF
Habit: Annual. Stem: 5--14 dm, erect, stout; nodes glabrous. Leaf: sheath glabrous; ligule 0.5--3 mm; auricles <= 6 mm (0 in some cultivated plants); blade to 30 cm, 5--15 mm wide, scabrous or glabrous. Inflorescence: (2)5--10 cm, erect to nodding, green to +- purple or +- black at maturity, all spikelets generally fertile, sessile (lateral spikelets rudimentary in some cultivated plants); axis generally remaining intact at maturity. Spikelet: glumes 10--30 mm, hairy, flat near base, margins not ciliate; lemma 6--15 mm, glabrous, awn 30--180 mm or 0. Chromosomes: 2n=14,28.
Ecology: Disturbed areas as an escape from cultivation, not persisting; Elevation: < 3100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: North America; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: All year
Synonyms: Hordeum vulgare var. trifurcatum (Schltdl.) Alef.; Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare
Unabridged Note: Barley is a source of food, malt used in brewing, and flour. It is one of our earliest domesticated pls. It is planted to control erosion and used to suppress weed growth.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Hordeum vulgare, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28397, accessed on February 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 05, 2016.


Hordeum vulgare
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Hordeum vulgare
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Hordeum vulgare in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Hordeum vulgare:
CA-FP;
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.