Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Hippuris vulgaris

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: HippurisView Description 

Common Name: MARE'S-TAIL
Habit: Perennial herb from rhizome, emergent aquatic, glabrous; rooting at nodes; wind-pollinated. Stem: +- erect, unbranched. Leaf: in whorls of 6--12, sessile, linear to elliptic, entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in upper axils, +- sessile. Flower: inconspicuous, generally bisexual (or staminate proximal to pistillate); calyx a minute rim at ovary top; petals 0; stamen 1, off center on top of ovary; ovary inferior, chamber 1, style 1, off-center, +- = stamen, slender, in groove between anther sacs, +- entirely stigmatic. Fruit: achene or thin-walled drupe.
Species In Genus: 2 species. Etymology: (Greek: horse tail) Note: In Hippuridaceae in TJM (1993); now, along with Callitrichaceae and others, treated in Plantaginaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock, C. Barre Hellquist & Robert R. Haynes

Hippuris vulgaris L.
Stem: 3--6 dm; distal 1/4--1/2 emergent. Leaf: 1--3.5 cm. Fruit: 2--3 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=32.
Ecology: Margins of shallow ponds, springs, marshy, swampy, or wet disturbed areas; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRH, SN, SnFrB, SnBr, SnJt, MP; Distribution Outside California: Arizona, New Mexico, southern South America; much of northern hemisphere. Flowering Time: May--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth McClintock, C. Barre Hellquist & Robert R. Haynes
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Hippuris
Next taxon: Holmgrenanthe

Name Search
botanical illustration including Hippuris vulgaris


Citation for this treatment: Elizabeth McClintock, C. Barre Hellquist & Robert R. Haynes 2017. Hippuris vulgaris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Hippuris vulgaris:
NW, CaRH, SN, SnFrB, SnBr, SnJt, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.