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Hibiscus trionum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: MalvaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5--many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1--2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5--many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
Genera In Family: 266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). Note: Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise).
eFlora Treatment Author: Steven R. Hill, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: HibiscusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HIBISCUS
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub [shrub, tree]. Stem: generally erect, bristly or stellate-hairy to +- glabrous. Leaf: generally simple, cordate, palmate-lobed or -divided or not, +- entire to dentate or crenate-dentate, palmate-veined, tip acute or acuminate; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: raceme, open, or flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks often jointed in upper 1/3; bractlets 8--10(20), free or basally fused, generally narrow, persistent. Flower: generally showy, open <= 1 day; calyx 5-lobed; petals white, yellow, lavender, red, or other colors, often with dark basal spot; filament tube 5-toothed at tip, anthers scattered on upper 1/2 below tip; style distally 5-branched, stigmas head-like. Fruit: capsule loculicidal, 5-chambered, ovoid or oblong, glabrous or hairy. Seed: several per chamber, hairy or +- glabrous.
Species In Genus: 200 species: especially America, Africa, Asia, Australia. Etymology: (Greek: hibiscos, a name for a mallow) Note: Other taxa, such as Hibiscus syriacus L., rose-of-Sharon, cultivated, possibly escaped.

Hibiscus trionum L.
Habit: Annual, bristly. Stem: erect, 0.3--0.6 m, branches prostrate or not. Leaf: blade +- 5 cm, 2--3 cm wide, 3--5-lobed or -divided, coarsely toothed, stellate-hairy abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils; bractlets 10, free +- to base, 7--8(10) mm, << calyx. Flower: calyx fused +- to tip, 5-ridged or -winged, veiny, inflated, papery in fruit; petals +- 2 cm, yellow, base purple-black; filament tube +- 11 mm. Fruit: 1.5--2 cm, enclosed within, <= calyx. Seed: 2--2.5 mm, reniform, sparsely hairy. Chromosomes: 2n=28,56.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed places; Elevation: generally < 350(1450) m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: native to Europe, central Africa. Flowering Time: Apr--Nov
eFlora Treatment Author: Steven R. Hill
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Previous taxon: Hibiscus lasiocarpos var. occidentalis
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botanical illustration including Hibiscus trionum


Citation for this treatment: Steven R. Hill 2016. Hibiscus trionum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 21, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 21, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Hibiscus trionum:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.