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Heteropogon contortus
TANGLEHEAD

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: HeteropogonView Description 

Habit: Annual or perennial herb, cespitose. Stem: erect, densely clumped. Leaf: cauline; sheaths keeled; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded. Inflorescence: raceme-like, numerous, long-stalked, with dissimilar spikelet pairs. Spikelet: in pairs, on 1 side of axis; spikelets of lower 1--4 pairs +- equal, sterile or staminate; spikelets of upper pairs unequal, sessile spikelet bisexual, glumes tightly enclosing florets, florets 2, lower vestigial, upper fertile, lemma translucent, tip awned; stalked spikelet staminate or sterile, awn 0; pair breaking below sessile spikelet. Fruit: lanceolate, with a groove.
Species In Genus: 8--10 species: warm temperate, tropics. Etymology: (Greek: different beard, from awned and awnless spikelets)
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth M. Skendzic

Heteropogon contortus (L.) Roem. & Schult.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 2--10 dm. Leaf: blade 6--20 cm, 4--8 mm wide. Inflorescence: 4--8 cm. Spikelet: of lower pairs 6--10 mm; sessile spikelets of upper pairs 5--10 mm, glume dark brown, sharp-pointed, callus hairs red-brown, awn 6--10 cm, puberulent; stalked spikelets of upper pairs 6--10 mm, glumes glabrous or with hairs on papillae. Chromosomes: 2n=40, 50, 60.
Ecology: Uncommon. Rocky slopes, washes, open areas; Elevation: < 800 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (San Diego Co.), DSon; Distribution Outside California: southern United States, Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--Nov
eFlora Treatment Author: Elizabeth M. Skendzic
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Citation for this treatment: Elizabeth M. Skendzic 2016. Heteropogon contortus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28074, accessed on June 01, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on June 01, 2016.


Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Heteropogon contortus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson

More photos of Heteropogon contortus in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Heteropogon contortus:
SCo (San Diego Co.), DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.