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Heteromeles arbutifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RosaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0--3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0--5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5--many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1--many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1--5. Fruit: 1--many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1--5 stones. Seed: generally 1--5 (per fruit, not per flower).
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. Note: Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis.
eFlora Treatment Author: Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: HeteromelesView Description 

Common Name: CHRISTMAS BERRY, TOYON

Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Greek: different apple)
eFlora Treatment Author: James B. Phipps

Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roem.
NATIVE
Habit: Shrub, small tree, < 10 m, unarmed. Stem: trunk bark +- gray; twigs puberulent. Leaf: petioled, simple, evergreen; blade 5--10 cm, +- elliptic, leathery, finely toothed, veined to teeth. Inflorescence: panicle, domed, branches white-tomentose; pedicel bractlets several to many, scattered throughout, gland-tipped. Flower: hypanthium urn-shaped, smooth, bractlets 0; sepals short, triangular, over hypanthium in fruit; petals < 4 mm, white; stamens +- 10, filaments short; ovary inferior, 2--3-chambered, styles 2--3, free. Fruit: pome, 5--10 mm diam, elliptic, bright red (yellow), pulp mealy. Seed: 2--3, large, smooth, brown.
Ecology: Chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen forest; Elevation: < 1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, SNF, n&c SNH, GV, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: British Columbia, Mexico. Flowering Time: (May)Jun--Aug Note: Cult for foliage, flowers, fruit.
Synonyms: Heteromeles arbutifolia var. arbutifolia; Heteromeles arbutifolia var. cerina (Jeps.) E. Murray; Heteromeles arbutifolia var. macrocarpa (Munz) Munz; Heteromeles salicifolia (C. Presl) Abrams
eFlora Treatment Author: James B. Phipps
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botanical illustration including Heteromeles arbutifolia

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Citation for this treatment: James B. Phipps 2016. Heteromeles arbutifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28072, accessed on May 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 28, 2016.


Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2009 George W. Hartwell
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2007 George W. Hartwell
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Heteromeles arbutifolia
click for enlargement
© 2013 Keir Morse
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Heteromeles arbutifolia in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Heteromeles arbutifolia:
NW, SNF, n&c SNH, GV, CW, SW;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.