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Heteromeles arbutifolia

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RosaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ROSE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0--3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0--5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5--many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1--many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1--5. Fruit: 1--many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1--5 stones. Seed: generally 1--5 (per fruit, not per flower).
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. Note: Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis.
eFlora Treatment Author: Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: HeteromelesView Description 

Common Name: CHRISTMAS BERRY, TOYON

Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Greek: different apple)
eFlora Treatment Author: James B. Phipps

Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roem.
NATIVE
Habit: Shrub, small tree, < 10 m, unarmed. Stem: trunk bark +- gray; twigs puberulent. Leaf: petioled, simple, evergreen; blade 5--10 cm, +- elliptic, leathery, finely toothed, veined to teeth. Inflorescence: panicle, domed, branches white-tomentose; pedicel bractlets several to many, scattered throughout, gland-tipped. Flower: hypanthium urn-shaped, smooth, bractlets 0; sepals short, triangular, over hypanthium in fruit; petals < 4 mm, white; stamens +- 10, filaments short; ovary inferior, 2--3-chambered, styles 2--3, free. Fruit: pome, 5--10 mm diam, elliptic, bright red (yellow), pulp mealy. Seed: 2--3, large, smooth, brown.
Ecology: Chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen forest; Elevation: < 1300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, SNF, n&c SNH, GV, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: British Columbia, Mexico. Flowering Time: (May)Jun--Aug Note: Cult for foliage, flowers, fruit.
Synonyms: Heteromeles arbutifolia var. arbutifolia; Heteromeles arbutifolia var. cerina (Jeps.) E. Murray; Heteromeles arbutifolia var. macrocarpa (Munz) Munz; Heteromeles salicifolia (C. Presl) Abrams
eFlora Treatment Author: James B. Phipps
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botanical illustration including Heteromeles arbutifolia

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Citation for this treatment: James B. Phipps 2016. Heteromeles arbutifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28072, accessed on May 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 03, 2016.


Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2009 George W. Hartwell
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2013 Keir Morse
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Heteromeles arbutifolia
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© 2013 Keir Morse

More photos of Heteromeles arbutifolia in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Heteromeles arbutifolia:
NW, SNF, n&c SNH, GV, CW, SW;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.