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Hesperis matronalis
DAME'S ROCKET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: HesperisView Description 

Common Name: ROCKET
Habit: Biennial, perennial herb; hairs simple, stalked-forked, generally mixed with some stalked glands. Leaf: generally rosetted, entire to dentate or lobed; cauline petioled or sessile [base occasionally lobed or clasping stem]. Inflorescence: elongated; bracts 0 [throughout]. Flower: sepals erect, inner pair sac-like at base; petals white to purple, yellow, brown, or green, clawed. Fruit: silique, linear, cylindric to 4-sided or flat parallel to septum, late-dehiscent, unsegmented; valves 1--3-veined; stigma deeply 2-lobed. Seed: 4--40, in 1 row; wing 0.
Species In Genus: 25 species: Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: evening, when some flowers are most fragrant)

Hesperis matronalis L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Biennial (perennial herb). Stem: 4--8(11) dm; hairs simple and forked at least proximally; glands generally 0. Leaf: basal and proximal cauline (2)4--15(20) cm, 0.8--4(6) cm wide, oblong to lanceolate or obovate, entire or minutely dentate; distal cauline petioled or +- sessile, base not lobed. Flower: sepals 5--8 mm; petals (1.3)1.5--2(2.2) cm, 3.5--9 mm wide, purple, rose, or white; claw 6--12 mm. Fruit: (4)6--10(14) cm, 2--2.5 mm wide, +- cylindric, constricted between seeds; pedicel spreading to ascending, (0.5)0.7--1.7(2.5) cm. Seed: (2.5)3--4 mm, oblong. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Roadsides, slopes, woodland; Elevation: 700--2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR (Trinity Co.), n SNH (Plumas Co.); Distribution Outside California: Canada, United States; native to Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2016. Hesperis matronalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=28024, accessed on July 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 27, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Hesperis matronalis:
KR (Trinity Co.), n SNH (Plumas Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.