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Heliotropium europaeum
EUROPEAN HELIOTROPE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: HeliotropiumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HELIOTROPE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb [shrub], glabrous to bristly or strigose. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched. Leaf: generally cauline, petioled to sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in axils or many in terminal coiled spike-like cymes. Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple; stamens attached on upper tube, included, anthers +- sessile; style 0 or not lobed, stigma 1, linear to disk-like. Fruit: nutlets 2 or 4, erect, generally ovoid to spheric, smooth, roughened, or hairy, scar generally lateral.
Species In Genus: +- 250 species: temperate, tropics. Ornamental, cultivated for medicinal drugs. Etymology: (Greek: sun turning, from some species flowering at summer solstice)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Dieter H. Wilken

Heliotropium europaeum L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, taprooted. Stem: ascending to erect, 5--40 cm, puberulent to short-soft-hairy. Leaf: 1.5--5 cm, elliptic to ovate, petioled, obtuse, appressed-short-hairy. Inflorescence: spike-like cymes 2--4. Flower: calyx lobes linear to lanceolate, bristly; corolla 2--4 mm, 3--5 mm diam, salverform, white. Fruit: nutlets 4, irregularly roughened, faintly tubercled. Chromosomes: 2n=24,32.
Ecology: Open, often disturbed sites; Elevation: < 1400 m. Bioregional Distribution: n&c SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, MP; Distribution Outside California: eastern United States; native to southern and eastern Europe, northern Africa. Flowering Time: May--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Dieter H. Wilken
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Heliotropium europaeum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27915, accessed on December 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 07, 2016.


Heliotropium europaeum
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© 2004 Julie Kierstead Nelson

More photos of Heliotropium europaeum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Heliotropium europaeum:
n&c SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.