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Harpagonella palmeri
PALMER'S GRAPPLINGHOOK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: HarpagonellaView Description 


Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Latin: small grappling hook, from calyx spines)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick

Harpagonella palmeri A. Gray
NATIVE
Stem: ascending to erect, 3--30 cm. Inflorescence: pedicels in fruit 0.5--1 mm, twisted. Flower: calyx > nutlets, upper 2 lobes >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, +- bur-like, with 5--10 stout spines each with hooked bristles, lower 3 lobes distinct; corolla +- 1 mm diam, +- funnel-shaped, white. Fruit: nutlets 2, spreading, 1--4 mm, dissimilar, +- oblanceolate, margins entire. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Dry, semi-barren sites in chaparral, coastal scrub, grassland; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, PR, sw DSon; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--Apr Note: May be indistinct from Pectocarya; needs study.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Harpagonella palmeri

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick 2016. Harpagonella palmeri, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27694, accessed on February 12, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 12, 2016.


Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Harpagonella palmeri
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
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© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Harpagonella palmeri in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Harpagonella palmeri:
SCo, PR, sw DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.