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Harpagonella palmeri
PALMER'S GRAPPLINGHOOK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: HarpagonellaView Description 


Species In Genus: 1 sp. Etymology: (Latin: small grappling hook, from calyx spines)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick

Harpagonella palmeri A. Gray
NATIVE
Stem: ascending to erect, 3--30 cm. Inflorescence: pedicels in fruit 0.5--1 mm, twisted. Flower: calyx > nutlets, upper 2 lobes >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, +- bur-like, with 5--10 stout spines each with hooked bristles, lower 3 lobes distinct; corolla +- 1 mm diam, +- funnel-shaped, white. Fruit: nutlets 2, spreading, 1--4 mm, dissimilar, +- oblanceolate, margins entire. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Dry, semi-barren sites in chaparral, coastal scrub, grassland; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo, PR, sw DSon; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Flowering Time: Mar--Apr Note: May be indistinct from Pectocarya; needs study.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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botanical illustration including Harpagonella palmeri

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Timothy C. Messick 2016. Harpagonella palmeri, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27694, accessed on May 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 29, 2016.


Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2010 Gary A. Monroe
Harpagonella palmeri
click for enlargement
© 2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Harpagonella palmeri in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Harpagonella palmeri:
SCo, PR, sw DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.