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Hackelia californica
CALIFORNIA STICKSEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: HackeliaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: STICKSEED
Habit: Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often +- woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally +- = blades, +- winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, +- bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.
Species In Genus: 40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. Etymology: (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783--1869) Note: Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged Note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr

Hackelia californica (A. Gray) I.M. Johnst.
NATIVE
Stem: 3--10 dm; hairs strigose to +- long, soft. Leaf: basal and lowest cauline 3--17 cm, 0.6--3 cm wide, lanceolate to oblanceolate; mid to upper cauline lanceolate to ovate, often clasping. Inflorescence: open; pedicel 6--15 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx 1.5--3 mm; corolla tube +- = calyx, throat +- closed, limb (5)7--14 mm diam, white, generally +- brown in age, appendages exserted, +- as long as wide, swollen at tip, white; anthers at +- top of tube. Fruit: nutlets 4--4.5 mm, dull, roughened, abaxial prickles 10--25, evenly distributed, +- = marginal. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Meadows, forest openings; Elevation: 940--2490 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Unabridged Note: With Hackelia mundula, Hackelia nervosa, Hackelia velutina, a closely related group of diploid CA-FP species uniformly characterized by nutlet abaxial prickles +- = marginal.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr 2016. Hackelia californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=27517, accessed on May 31, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 31, 2016.


Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Hackelia californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Hackelia californica:
NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.