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Hackelia californica
CALIFORNIA STICKSEED


Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera, treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: HackeliaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: STICKSEED
Habit: Perennial herb (biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often +- woody, taprooted. Stem: ascending or erect. Leaf: lowest petioles generally +- = blades, +- winged, others 0. Inflorescence: coiled cymes, generally > 3, generally terminal and axillary, +- bracted; pedicel in fruit elongated, recurved to reflexed. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate-salverform, generally white with yellow patch adaxially, lobes appendaged near base. Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, attachment scar lateral-medial, generally with barb-tipped prickles abaxially and on margin.
Species In Genus: 40 species: generally western North America, southeastern Asia. Etymology: (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, 1783--1869) Note: Values for corolla limb diam take into account shrinkage during flower period. Difficult, study needed, especially in northern California, southeastern Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula.
Unabridged Note: In North America filling old-world role of flat-flowered forget-me-nots, Myosotis, Lepechiniella, etc, for pollinators.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr
Unabridged Reference: Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121--227
Hackelia californica (A. Gray) I.M. Johnst.
NATIVE
Stem: 3--10 dm; hairs strigose to +- long, soft. Leaf: basal and lowest cauline 3--17 cm, 0.6--3 cm wide, lanceolate to oblanceolate; mid to upper cauline lanceolate to ovate, often clasping. Inflorescence: open; pedicel 6--15 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx 1.5--3 mm; corolla tube +- = calyx, throat +- closed, limb (5)7--14 mm diam, white, generally +- brown in age, appendages exserted, +- as long as wide, swollen at tip, white; anthers at +- top of tube. Fruit: nutlets 4--4.5 mm, dull, roughened, abaxial prickles 10--25, evenly distributed, +- = marginal. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Meadows, forest openings; Elevation: 940--2490 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Unabridged Note: With Hackelia mundula, Hackelia nervosa, Hackelia velutina, a closely related group of diploid CA-FP species uniformly characterized by nutlet abaxial prickles +- = marginal.
Jepson eFlora Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr
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Botanical illustration including Hackelia californica

botanical illustration including Hackelia californica

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Robert L. Carr 2012, Hackelia californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=27517, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling
Hackelia californica
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling

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Geographic subdivisions for Hackelia californica:
NCoRH, CaRH, n SNH, MP
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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.