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Gunnera tinctoria

Higher Taxonomy
Family: GunneraceaeView Description 

Habit: Perennial herb, often large, terrestrial [semi-aquatic]; rhizome often with large scales. Stem: +- 0. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often large; stipules 0; blades < to > petioles, +- round to reniform or ovate, generally toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: panicle (generally spikes along 1° axis), terminal or from upper axils, large; flowers many, often pistillate below, staminate above, bisexual between. Flower: very small, unisexual or bisexual; sepals generally 2 [+- 0]; petals 2 [0]; stamens 1--2; ovary inferior, chamber 1, styles 2. Fruit: drupe.
Genera In Family: 1 genus, +- 35 species: Mexico, southern hemisphere, Hawaii; several cultivated. Rhizome scales previously interpreted as stipules.
eFlora Treatment Author: Livia Wanntorp & Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: GunneraView Description 

Etymology: (J.E. Gunner, Norwegian bishop, botanist, 1718--1773) Note: Plants obtain fixed nitrogen from cyanobacteria (Nostoc) living just under surface of rhizomes, roots, in the only such symbiosis in angiosperms.

Gunnera tinctoria (Molina) Mirb.
Habit: Rhizome scales 10--20 cm, deeply cut. Leaf: covered with stiff, hard prickles; petiole 1--1.5 m; blade 1--2 m, +- round, +- concave abaxially, thick, rough, main lobes palmate, teeth irregular, veins prominent, especially abaxially. Inflorescence: arising +- from ground, 50--75[100] cm, < 10 cm wide, +- conic; spikes many, dense, 2--5 cm, stout; peduncle generally 2--20 cm. Flower: style < 1.2 mm, >= sepals. Fruit: many, 1--2 mm, +- red, ovate to oblong.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed, shaded, damp areas; Elevation: < 100 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo (Marin, San Francisco cos.); Distribution Outside California: native to Chile. Flowering Time: Jul--Oct Note: May spread aggressively by seeds, rhizomes.
Synonyms: Gunnera chilensis Lam.
eFlora Treatment Author: Livia Wanntorp & Elizabeth McClintock
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Citation for this treatment: Livia Wanntorp & Elizabeth McClintock 2016. Gunnera tinctoria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Geographic subdivisions for Gunnera tinctoria:
CCo (Marin, San Francisco cos.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.