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Vascular Plants of California
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Gaultheria shallon
SALAL


Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: HEATH FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: GaultheriaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Shrub, glabrous or short- or long-hairy, glandular or not, often smelling of wintergreen, generally rhizomed. Stem: prostrate to erect, rooting at nodes or not. Leaf: alternate, evergreen, leathery, entire to serrate. Inflorescence: raceme, each flower with 1 bract, 2 bractlets, or flowers 1 in leaf axils, each with 4--10 bractlets; pedicel jointed to flower. Flower: sepals generally 5, fused; petals 5, fused, cylindric, urn-, or bell-shaped, white to red; stamens (5,8)10, anthers dehiscing by 2 short, slit-like to rounded pores, awns (0,2)4, sometimes reduced; ovary superior or 1/2-inferior, chambers (4)5, placentas axile, at top. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or irregularly dehiscing, generally +- enclosed by fleshy, colorful calyx (or a berry and/or with non-fleshy calyx). Seed: few to many per chamber, appendages 0.
Species In Genus: +- 130 species: circum-Pacific, eastern North America, eastern Brazil, Himalayas. Etymology: (J.F. Gaulthier, botanist, physician, Quebec, 1708--1756)
eFlora Treatment Author: Walter S. Judd
Reference: Middleton 1991 Bot J Linn Soc 106:229--258
Gaultheria shallon Pursh
NATIVE
Stem: erect, generally 2--20 dm, clumped, nonglandular-hairy or not, sparsely to moderately long-glandular-hairy. Leaf: (3)5--13 cm, minutely serrate; base obtuse to cordate; tip short-acuminate to acuminate. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary, glandular-hairy. Flower: sepals glandular-hairy; corolla urn-shaped, glandular-hairy, white to pink; filaments puberulent, anther awns 4. Fruit: dark purple to +- blue-black.
Ecology: Moist forest margins; Elevation: < 1060 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, KR, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, s SCoRO; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Walter S. Judd
Reference: Middleton 1991 Bot J Linn Soc 106:229--258
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Botanical illustration including Gaultheria shallon

botanical illustration including Gaultheria shallon

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Citation for this treatment: Walter S. Judd 2012, Gaultheria shallon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=26490, accessed on October 15, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 15, 2019.

Gaultheria shallon
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Gaultheria shallon
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Gaultheria shallon
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© 2007 California Academy of Sciences
Gaultheria shallon
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Gaultheria shallon
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Gaultheria shallon
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson

More photos of Gaultheria shallon in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Gaultheria shallon:
NCo, KR, NCoRO, CCo, SnFrB, s SCoRO
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.